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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Pool Boiling Characteristics of Metallic Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Hari Krishna

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heat Transfer and Thermal Power Laboratory,  Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

Harish Ganapathy

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala 673601, India

G. Sateesh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heat Transfer and Thermal Power Laboratory,  Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Indiaskdas@iitm.ac.in

Sarit K. Das1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heat Transfer and Thermal Power Laboratory,  Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Indiaskdas@iitm.ac.in

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 133(11), 111501 (Aug 31, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002597 History: Received September 12, 2009; Revised August 28, 2010; Published August 31, 2011; Online August 31, 2011

Nanofluids, solid-liquid suspensions with solid particles of size of the order of few nanometers, have created interest in many researchers because of their enhancement in thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer characteristics. Many studies have been done on the pool boiling characteristics of nanofluids, most of which have been with nanofluids containing oxide nanoparticles owing to the ease in their preparation. Deterioration in boiling heat transfer was observed in some studies. Metallic nanofluids having metal nanoparticles, which are known for their good heat transfer characteristics in bulk regime, reported drastic enhancement in thermal conductivity. The present paper investigates into the pool boiling characteristics of metallic nanofluids, in particular of Cu-H2O nanofluids, on flat copper heater surface. The results indicate that at comparatively low heat fluxes, there is deterioration in boiling heat transfer with very low particle volume fraction of 0.01%, and it increases with volume fraction and shows enhancement with 0.1%. However, the behavior is the other way around at high heat fluxes. The enhancement at low heat fluxes is due to the fact that the effect of formation of thin sorption layer of nanoparticles on heater surface, which causes deterioration by trapping the nucleation sites, is overshadowed by the increase in microlayer evaporation, which is due to enhancement in thermal conductivity. Same trend has been observed with variation in the surface roughness of the heater as well.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

(a) TEM image of Cu(80 nm) and (b) X-ray diffraction analysis of Cu nanoparticles

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Figure 2

(a) Fresh Cu – H2 O nanofluid and (b) Cu – H2 O nanofluid showing heavy oxidation and sedimentation after 1 week

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Figure 3

Variation in thermal conductivity for Cu (80 nm) – H2 O nanofluid with volume fraction at different temperatures

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Figure 4

Experimental setup

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Figure 6

Validation curve: q versus ΔTw with pure water

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Figure 7

Boiling curves for Cu (80 nm)–water nanofluid at different concentrations on (a) smooth heater and (b) rough heater

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Figure 8

Comparison of boiling curves for Cu – H2 O nanofluid on both heaters

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Figure 9

Ratio of BHT coefficients of Cu – H2 O nanofluid and pure water on (a) smooth heater and (b) rough heater

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Figure 10

(a) Predicted data by the model versus experimental data (for smooth heater) and (b) variation in contact angle with heat flux at different concentrations on smooth heater

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