Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Experiments in Fluoride Salt

[+] Author and Article Information
Graydon L. Yoder, Jr.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831
e-mail: yodergljr@ornl.gov

Dennis Heatherly

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN 37831

Mario Caja

Electrochemical Systems, Inc.,
Oak Ridge, TN 37830

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 1, 2016; final manuscript received August 3, 2017; published online December 12, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ali Khounsary.

J. Heat Transfer 140(4), 042501 (Dec 12, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1549; doi: 10.1115/1.4038132 History: Received September 01, 2016; Revised August 03, 2017

A liquid fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and used to acquire natural convection heat transfer data. The experiment used FLiNaK salt in a small cell that included a cylindrical electrical heater, 1.27 cm in diameter, oriented vertically in a FLiNaK bath. Thermocouples internal to the heater were used, along with FLiNaK temperature measurements and heater power measurements, to determine natural circulation heat transfer coefficients. These data were acquired for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 3 × 105 to 8 × 109 and salt temperatures from 560 °C to 640 °C. Test results show that measured heat transfer coefficients are consistent with conventional natural convection heat transfer coefficients for cylinders, but the average error can be as high as 20% using these correlations. Correlations developed by fitting the data for this experiment show much lower errors (<10%).

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Fig. 1

Schematic of liquid salt cell

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Fig. 2

Assembly inserted in furnace

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Fig. 3

Salt cell dimensions (mm)

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Fig. 4

Thermocouple probe—thermocouple locations

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Fig. 5

(a) Heater 1 thermocouple locations, (b) heater 2 thermocouple locations, and (c) heater 3 thermocouple locations

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Fig. 6

Heat transfer coefficient data

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Fig. 9

Best estimate data fit

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Fig. 7

Comparison of FLiNaK data to correlations developed for isothermal surfaces

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Fig. 8

Comparison of FLiNaK data to correlations developed for uniform heat flux surfaces



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