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Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

Comparison of Natural Convection Around a Circular Cylinder With Different Geometries of Cylinders Inside a Square Enclosure Filled With Ag-Nanofluid Superposed Porous-Nanofluid Layers

[+] Author and Article Information
Salam Hadi Hussain

Department of Automobile Engineering,
College of Engineering-Al Musayab,
Babylon University,
Babylon Province 00964-7802431066, Iraq
e-mails: salamphd1974@yahoo.com;
met.salam.hadi@uobabylon.edu.iq

Mustafa Salah Rahomey

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
Babylon University,
Babylon Province 00964-7802431066, Iraq

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received July 14, 2017; final manuscript received March 1, 2018; published online November 26, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Antonio Barletta.

J. Heat Transfer 141(2), 022501 (Nov 26, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1409; doi: 10.1115/1.4039642 History: Received July 14, 2017; Revised March 01, 2018

Numerical simulations are carried out for fluid flow and natural convection heat transfer induced by a temperature difference between a hot inner cylinder with different geometries (i.e., circular; triangular; elliptic; rectangular; and rhombic) and a cold outer square enclosure filled with nanofluid superposed porous-nanofluid layers. The Darcy–Brinkman model is applied for the saturated porous layer with nanofluid. Moreover, the transport equations (mass, momentum, and energy) are solved numerically using the Galerkin weighted residual method by dividing the domain into two sets of equations for every layer with incorporating a nonuniform mesh size. The considered domains in this investigation are closely examined over a wide range of Rayleigh number (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106), Darcy number (10−5 ≤ Da ≤ 10−1), the thickness of porous layer (0% ≤ Xp ≤ 100%), thermal conductivity ratio (1 ≤ Rk ≤ 20), and nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.1), respectively. The nanofluid is considered to be composed of Ag-nanoparticle and water as a base fluid. The results showed that the obtained total surfaces-averaged Nusselt numbers of the enclosure, in all cases, at the same operating conditions, the rate of heat transfer from the outer enclosure which the triangular cylinder is located inside is better. Also, as the thickness of the porous layer is increased from 20% to 80%, the free convection performance will decrease significantly (to about 50%) due to the hydrodynamic properties of the porous material.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Physical domains and coordinate system along with boundary conditions for five geometries

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Streamlines on the left and isotherms on the right, for a square cavity with hot left sidewall and cold right sidewall and adiabatic top and bottom walls at Ra = 105, Da = 10−5, δ = 0, A = 1, Xp = 0.3, φ = 0 (solid lines) and φ = 0.05 (dashed lines) with the corresponding results of benchmark problem [34] (Reproduced with permission of Taylor & Francis, Ltd., copyright 2014)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Streamlines contours (ψ) and isotherm contours (θ) of saturated porous-nanofluid (left layer) and the same nanofluid (right layer) for ((a) Xp = 20% upper row, (b) Xp = 50% middle row, and (c) Xp = 80% lower row) and (Ra = 106, φ = 0.05, Rk = 1 and Da = 10−3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Streamline contours (ψ) and isotherm contours (θ) of saturated porous-nanofluid (left layer) and the same nanofluid (right layer) for ((a) Ra = 103 upper row and (b) Ra = 106 lower row) and (Xp = 0.7, φ = 0.1, Rk = 5, and Da = 0.01)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Streamline contours (ψ) and isotherm contours (θ) of saturated porous-nanofluid (left layer) and the same nanofluid (right layer) for ((a) Da = 10−3 upper row and (b) Da = 0.1 lower row) and (Xp = 0.4, φ = 0.07, Rk = 20 and Ra = 105)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Profile of average Nusselt number along the hot cylinder surface with thickness of porous layer for different values of Darcy number and (Da = 10−3, φ = 0.05, Ra = 105)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Profile of the average Nusselt number along the hot cylinder surface with Rayleigh number for (Rk = 1 solid lines), (Rk = 10 dashed lines) and (Da = 10−3, Xp = 0.3, φ = 0.05)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Profile of the average Nusselt number along the hot cylinder surface with Darcy number for with (φ = 0.1 solid lines), (φ = 0 dashed lines) and (Xp = 0.6, Ra = 105, Rk = 1)

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