Effect of Maximum Density of Water on Freezing of a Water-Saturated Horizontal Porous Layer

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Sugawara

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010, Japan

H. Inaba

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami 090, Japan

N. Seki

Hokkaido Polytechnic College, Zenibako 047-02, Hokkaido, Japan

J. Heat Transfer 110(1), 155-159 (Feb 01, 1988) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3250446 History: Received June 13, 1986; Online October 20, 2009


This experiment simulates the freezing of water in a layer of earth by the use of a porous bead layer. The layer is cooled from above. The beads are 1, 5, and 11-mm-dia glass and 11-mm-dia steel. When the predominant heat transfer mode in an unfrozen layer is conduction, the freezing rate is not affected by the bead diameter. However, in natural convection the freezing rate is greatly affected by the maximum density of water at 4°C. An approximate numerical analysis which does not treat the maximum density effects predicts well the freezing rate in the range of 0°C < T 2 < 4°C and 26°C < T 2 (T 2 = the lower plate temperature).

Copyright © 1988 by ASME
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