Bejan, A., 2000, *Shape and Structure, From Engineering to Nature*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Bejan, A., 1997, *Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics*, Second Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Bejan,
A., 1988, “Theory of Heat Transfer-Irreversible Power Plants,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 31, pp. 1211–1219.

Bejan,
A., 1989, “Theory of Heat Transfer-Irreversible Refrigeration Plants,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 32, pp. 1631–1639.

Bejan, A., Tsatsaronis, G., and Moran, M., 1996, *Thermal Design and Optimization*, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Moran, M. J., 1982, *Availability Analysis: A Guide to Efficient Energy Use*, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Bejan, A., 1982, *Entropy Generation Through Heat and Fluid Flow*, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Bejan, A., 1988, *Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics*, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Bejan, A., 1996, *Entropy Generation Minimization*, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Bejan,
A., 1996, “Entropy Generation Minimization: The New Thermodynamics of Finite-Size Devices and Finite-Time Processes,” J. Appl. Phys., 79, pp. 1191–1218.

Feidt, M., 1987, *Thermodynamique et Optimisation Énergetique des Systèmes et Procedés*, Technique et Documentation, Lavoisier, Paris.

Sieniutycz, S., and Salamon, P., eds., 1990, *Finite-Time Thermodynamics and Thermoeconomics*, Taylor and Francis, New York.

De Vos, A., 1992, *Endoreversible Thermodynamics of Solar Energy Conversion*, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Radcenco, V., 1994, *Generalized Thermodynamics*, Editura Tehnica, Bucharest.

Bejan, A., and Mamut, E., eds., 1999, *Thermodynamic Optimization of Complex Energy Systems*, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Bejan, A., Vadász, P., and Kröger, D. G., 1999, *Energy and the Environment*, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1964, *Desert Animals: Physiological Problems of Heat and Water*, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1972, *How Animals Work*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1984, *Scaling: Why Is Animal Size So Important?*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Peters, R. H., 1983, *The Ecological Implications of Body Size*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Calder, W. A., III, 1984, *Size, Function, and Life History*, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Vogel, S., 1988, *Life’s Devices*, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Kraus, A. D., and Bar-Cohen, A., 1995, *Design and Analysis of Heat Sinks*, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Bejan, A., 1995, *Convection Heat Transfer*, 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Kim, S. J., and Lee, S. W., eds., 1996, *Air Cooling Technology for Electronic Equipment*, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Sathe,
S., and Sammakia,
B., 1998, “A Review of Recent Developments in Some Practical Aspects of Air-Cooled Electronic Packages,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, pp. 830–839.

Bejan, A., 1984, *Convection Heat Transfer*, John Wiley and Sons, New York, Chapter 4, Problem 11, p. 157.

Bar-Cohen,
A., and Rohsenow,
W. M., 1984, “Thermally Optimum Spacing of Vertical, Natural Convection Cooled, Parallel Plates,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 106, pp. 116–123.

Anand,
N. K., Kim,
S. H., and Fletcher,
L. S., 1992, “The Effect of Plate Spacing on Free Convection between Heated Parallel Plates,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114, pp. 515–518.

Bejan,
A., Fowler,
A. J., and Stanescu,
G., 1995, “The Optimal Spacing Between Horizontal Cylinders in a Fixed Volume Cooled by Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 38, pp. 2047–2055.

Fisher,
T. S., and Torrance,
K. E., 1998, “Free Convection Limits for Pin-Fin Cooling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, pp. 633–640.

Ledezma,
G. A., and Bejan,
A., 1997, “Optimal Geometric Arrangement of Staggered Vertical Plates in Natural Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 119, pp. 700–708.

Bejan,
A., and Sciubba,
E., 1992, “The Optimal Spacing for Parallel Plates Cooled by Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 35, pp. 3259–3264.

Petrescu,
S., 1994, “Comments on the Optimal Spacing of Parallel Plates Cooled by Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 37, pp. 1283.

Fowler,
A. J., Ledezma,
G. A., and Bejan,
A., 1997, “Optimal Geometric Arrangement of Staggered Plates in Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40, pp. 1795–1805.

Bejan,
A., 1995, “The Optimal Spacings for Cylinders in Crossflow Forced Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117, pp. 767–770.

Stanescu,
G., Fowler,
A. J., and Bejan,
A., 1996, “The Optimal Spacing of Cylinders in Free-Stream Cross-Flow Forced Convection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 39, pp. 311–317.

Ledezma,
G. A., Morega,
A. M., and Bejan,
A., 1996, “Optimal Spacing Between Fins With Impinging Flow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 570–577.

Heinrich,
B., 1981, “The Mechanism and Energetics of Honeybee Swarm Temperature Regulation,” J. Exp. Biol., 91, pp. 25–55.

Basak,
T., Rao,
K. K., and Bejan,
A., 1996, “A Model for Heat Transfer in a Honey Bee Swarm,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, pp. 387–400.

Bejan,
A., Ikegami,
Y., and Ledezma,
G. A., 1998, “Constructal Theory of Natural Crack Pattern Formation for Fastest Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 41, pp. 1945–1954.

Bejan,
A., 1997, “Constructal-Theory Network of Conducting Paths for Cooling a Heat Generating Volume,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40, pp. 799–816.

Ledezma,
G., Bejan,
A., and Errera,
M. R., 1997, “Constructal Tree Networks for Heat Transfer,” J. Appl. Phys., 82, pp. 89–100.

Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., and Rinaldo, A., 1997, *Fractal River Basins*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Meakin, P., 1998, *Fractals, Scaling and Growth Far From Equilibrium*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Cohn,
D. L., 1954, “Optimal Systems: I. The Vascular System,” Bull. Math. Biophys., 16, pp. 59–74.

Thompson, D’A., 1942, *On Growth and Form*, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Mandelbrot, B. B., 1982, *The Fractal Geometry of Nature*, Freeman, New York.

Almogbel,
M., and Bejan,
A., 1999, “Conduction Trees With Spacings at the Tips,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 42, pp. 3739–3756.

Dan,
N., and Bejan,
A., 1998, “Constructal Tree Networks for the Time-Dependent Discharge of a Finite-Size Volume to One Point,” J. Appl. Phys., 84, pp. 3042–3050.

Neagu,
M., and Bejan,
A., 1999, “Constructal-Theory Tree Networks of ‘Constant’ Thermal Resistance,” J. Appl. Phys., 86, pp. 1136–1144.

Neagu,
M., and Bejan,
A., 1999, “Three-Dimensional Tree Constructs of ‘Constant’ Thermal Resistance,” J. Appl. Phys., 86, pp. 7107–7115.

Nelson,
R. A., and Bejan,
A., 1998, “Constructal Optimization of Internal Flow Geometry in Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, pp. 357–364.

Malkus,
W. V. R., 1954, “The Heat Transport and Spectrum of Thermal Turbulence,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 225, pp. 196–212.

Glansdorff, P., and Prigogine, L., 1971, *Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations*, John Wiley and Sons, London.

Avnir,
D., Biham,
O., Lidar,
D., and Malcai,
O., 1998, “Is the Geometry of Nature Fractal?,” Science, 279, pp. 39–40.

Bejan,
A., and Tondeur,
D., 1998, “Equipartition, Optimal Allocation, and the Constructal Approach to Predicting Organization in Nature,” Rev. Gen. Therm., 37, pp. 165–180.

Nottale, L., 1993, *Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics*, World Scientific, Singapore.

Errera,
M. R., and Bejan,
A., 1998, “Deterministic Tree Networks for River Drainage Basins,” Fractals, 6, pp. 245–261.

Bejan,
A., and Errera,
M. R., 2000, “Convective Trees of Fluid Channels for Volumetric Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 43, pp. 3105–3118.

Hamburgen, W. R., 1986, “Optimal Finned Heat Sinks,” WRL Research Report 86/4, Digital, Western Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA.

Kraus,
A. D., 1999, “Developments in the Analysis of Finned Arrays,” Int. J. Transp. Phenom., 1, pp. 141–164.

Gardner,
K. A., 1945, “Efficiency of Extended Surfaces,” Trans. ASME, 67, pp. 621–631.

Bejan,
A., and Dan,
N., 1999, “Constructal Trees of Convective Fins,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121, 675–682.

Bejan,
A., and Almogbel,
M., 2000, “Constructal T-Shaped Fins,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 43, pp. 2101–2115.

Alebrahim,
A., and Bejan,
A., 1999, “Constructal Trees of Circular Fins for Conductive and Convective Heat Transfer,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 42, pp. 3585–3597.

Lin,
W. W., and Lee,
D. J., 1997, “Diffusion-Convection Process in a Branching Fin,” Chem. Eng. Commun., 158, pp. 59–70.

Lee,
D. J., and Lin,
W. W., 1995, “Second-Law Analysis on a Fractal-Like Fin Under Crossflow,” AIChE J., 41, pp. 2314–2317.

Lin,
W. W., and Lee,
D. J., 1997, “Second-Law Analysis on a Pin-Fin Array Under Cross-Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40, pp. 1937–1945.

Bejan,
A., 1997, “Constructal Tree Network for Fluid Flow Between a Finite-Size Volume and One Source or Sink,” Rev. Gen. Therm., 36, pp. 592–604.

Bejan,
A., and Errera,
M. R., 1997, “Deterministic Tree Networks for Fluid Flow: Geometry for Minimal Flow Resistance between a Volume and One Point,” Fractals, 5, pp. 685–695.

Errera,
M. R., and Bejan,
A., 1999, “Tree Networks for Flows in Porous Media,” J. Porous Media, 2, pp. 1–18.

Weibel, E. R., 1963, *Morphometry of the Human Lung*, Academic Press, New York.

Nonnenmacher, T. F., Losa, G. A., and Weibel, E. R., eds., 1994, *Fractals in Biology and Medicine*, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.

MacDonald, N., 1983, *Trees and Networks in Biological Models*, Wiley, Chichester, UK.

Bloom, A. L., 1978, *Geomorphology*, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Leopold, L. B., Wolman, M. G., and Miller, J. P., 1964, *Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology*, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.

Scheiddeger, A. E., 1970, *Theoretical Geomorphology*, 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Chorley, R. J., Schumm, S. A., and Sugden, D. E., 1984, *Geomorphology*, Methuen, London.

Morisawa, M., 1985, *Rivers: Form and Process*, Longman, London.

Bejan, A., 2000, “The Tree of Convective Heat Streams: Its Thermal Insulation Function and the Predicted 3/4-Power Relation between Body Heat Loss and Body Size,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 43 , to appear.

Weinbaum,
S., and Jiji,
L. M., 1985, “A New Simplified Bioheat Equation for the Effect of Blood Flow on Local Average Tissue Temperature,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 107, pp. 131–139.

Huang,
H. W., Chen,
Z. P., and Roemer,
R. B., 1996, “A Counter Current Vascular Network Model of Heat Transfer in Tissues,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 118, 120–129.

Bejan,
A., 1979, “A General Variational Principle for Thermal Insulation System Design,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 22, pp. 219–228.

Bejan,
A., 1997, “Theory of Organization in Nature: Pulsating Physiological Processes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40, pp. 2097–2104.

Hildebrandt, S., and Tromba, A., 1985, *Mathematics and Optimal Form*, Scientific American Books, New York.