TECHNICAL PAPERS: Microscale Heat Transfer

An Experimental Study of Molten Microdroplet Surface Deposition and Solidification: Transient Behavior and Wetting Angle Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Attinger, Z. Zhao, D. Poulikakos

Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, Institute of Energy Technology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

J. Heat Transfer 122(3), 544-556 (Apr 11, 2000) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1287587 History: Received October 25, 1999; Revised April 11, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Orme,  M., 1993, “A Novel Technique of Rapid Solidification Net-Form Materials Synthesis,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2, No. 3, pp. 399–405.
Orme, M., Huang, C., and Courter, J., 1996, “Deposition Strategies for Control of Microstructures Microporosity and Surface Roughness in Droplet-Based Solid Freeform Fabrication of Structural Materials,” Melt Spinning, Strip Casting and Slab Casting, Matthys, E. F., and Truckner, W. G., eds., The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, pp. 125–143.
Hayes,  D. J., and Wallace,  D. B., 1998, “Solder Jet Printing: Wafer Bumping and CSP Applications,” Chip Scale Rev., 2, No. 4, pp. 75–80.
Waldvogel,  J. M., Diversiev,  G., Poulikakos,  D., Megaridis,  C. M., Attinger,  D., Xiong,  B., and Wallace,  D. B., 1998, “Impact and Solidification of Molten-Metal Droplets on Electronic Substrates,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, p. 539.
Haferl, S., Zhao, Z., Giannakouros, J., Attinger, D., and Poulikakos, D., 2000, “Transport Phenomena in the Impact of a Molten Droplet on a Surface: Macroscopic Phenomenology and Microscopic Considerations, Part I: Fluid Dynamics,” Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer, C. L. Tien, ed.
Attinger, D., Haferl, S., Zhao, Z., and Poulikakos, D., 2000, “Transport Phenomena in the Impact of a Molten Droplet on a Surface: Macroscopic Phenomenology and Microscopic Considerations, Part II—Heat Transfer and Solidification,” Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer., C. L. Tien, ed., in press.
Amon,  C. H., Schmaltz,  K. C., Merz,  R., and Prinz,  F. B., 1996, “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Interface Bonding via Substrate Remelting of an Impinging Molten Metal Droplet,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 164–172.
Bennett,  T., and Poulikakos,  D., 1994, “Heat Transfer Aspects of Splat-Quench Solidification: Modeling and Experiment,” J. Mater. Sci., 29, pp. 2025–2039.
Pasandideh-Fard,  M., Bohla,  R., Chandra,  S., and Mostaghimi,  J., 1998, “Deposition of Tin Droplets on a Steel Plate: Simulations and Experiments,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 41, No. 19, pp. 2929–2945.
Wang,  G. X., and Matthys,  E. F., 1996, “Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Thermal Conductance for Molten Metal Solidification on a Substrate,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 157–163.
Blake,  T. D., and Haynes,  J. M., 1969, “Kinetics of Liquid/Liquid Displacement,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 30, pp. 421–423.
Dussan,  E. B., 1979, “On the Spreading of Liquids on Solid Surfaces: Static and Dynamic Contact Lines,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 11, pp. 371–400.
Hoffman,  R. L., 1975, “A Study of the Advancing Interface, I—Interface Shape in Liquid-Gas Systems,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 50, pp. 228–241.
Fukai,  J., Shiba,  Y., Yamamoto,  T., Miyatake,  O., Poulikakos,  D., Megaridis,  C. M., and Zhao,  Z., 1995, “Wetting Effects on the Spreading of a Liquid Droplet Colliding With a Flat Surface: Experimental and Modeling,” Phys. Fluids, 7, No. 2, pp. 236–247.
Waldvogel,  J. M., and Poulikakos,  D., 1997, “Solidification Phenomena in Picoliter Size Solder Droplet Deposition on a Composite Substrate,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 40, No. 2, pp. 295–309.
Xiong,  B., Magaridis,  C. M., Poulikakos,  D., and Hoang,  H., 1998, “An Investigation of Key Factors Affecting Solder Microdroplet Deposition,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, pp. 259–270.
Inada, S., Miyasaka, Y., Mishida, K., and Chandratilleke, G. R., 1983, “Transient Temperature Variation of a Hot Wall due to an Impinging Water Drop: Effect of Subcooling of the Water Drop,” Proceedings of the Joint ASME/JSME Thermal Engineering Conference, Vol. 1, ASME, New York, pp. 173–182.
Pederson,  C. O., 1970, “An Experimental Study of the Dynamic Behavior and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Droplets Impinging Upon a Heated Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 13, pp. 369–381.
Savic, P., and Boult, G. T., 1955, “The Fluid Flow Associated With the Impact of Liquid Drops With Solid Surfaces,” Report No. MT-26, Nat. Res. Council Canada.
Toda,  S., 1974, “A Study of Mist Cooling” (2nd Report: Theory of Mist Cooling and Its Fundamental Experiments), Heat Transfer Japan. Res., 3, No. 1, pp. 1–44.
Ueda,  T., Enomoto,  T., and Kanetsuki,  M., 1979, “Heat Transfer Characteristics and Dynamic Behavior of Saturated Droplets Impinging on a Heated Vertical Surface,” Bull. JSME, 22, No. 167, pp. 724–732.
Chandra,  S., and Avedisian,  C. T., 1991, “On the Collision of a Droplet With a Solid Surface,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 432, pp. 13–41.
Stow,  C. D., and Hadfield,  M. G., 1981, “An Experimental Investigation of Fluid Flow Resulting From the Impact of a Water Drop With an Unyielding Dry Surface,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 373, pp. 419–441.
Wachters,  L. H., and Westerling,  N. A. J., 1966, “The Heat Transfer From a Hot Wall to Impinging Water Drop in the Spherical State,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 21, pp. 1047–1056.
Mundo,  C., Sommerfeld,  M., and Tropea,  C., 1995, “Droplet-Wall Collisions: Experimental Studies of the Deformation and Breakup Process,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 21, pp. 151–173.
Yarin,  A. L., and Weiss,  D. A., 1995, “Impact of Drops on Solid Surfaces: Self-Similar Capillary Waves and Splashing as a New Type of Kinematic Discontinuity,” J. Fluid Mech., 283, pp. 141–173.
Ohl,  C. D., Philipp,  A., and Lauterborn,  W., 1995, “Cavitation Bubble Collapse Studies at 20 Million Frames Per Second,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig), 4, No. 1, pp. 26–34.
Levin,  Z., and Hobbs,  P. V., 1971, “Splashing of Water Drops on Solid and Wetted Surfaces: Hydrodynamics and Charge Separations,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 269, pp. 555–585.
Hayes, D. J., Wallace, D. B., and Boldman, M. T., 1992, “Picoliter Solder Droplet Dispension,” ISHM Symposium 92 Proceedings, pp. 316–321.
Arx, M. v., 1998, “Thermal Properties of CMOS Thin Films,” Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich.
Poulikakos, D., 1994, Conduction Heat Transfer, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Bennett,  T., and Poulikakos,  D., 1993, “Splat-Quench Solidification: Estimating the Maximum Spreading of a Droplet Impacting a Solid Surface,” J. Mater. Sci., 28, pp. 963–970.
Schiaffino,  S., and Sonin,  A. A., 1997, “Molten Droplet Deposition and Solidification at Low Weber Numbers,” Phys. Fluids, 9, pp. 3172–3187.
Fukai,  J., Zhao,  Z., Poulikakos,  D., Megaridis,  C. M., and Miyatake,  O., 1993, “Modeling of the Deformation of a Liquid Droplet Impinging Upon a Flat Surface,” Phys. Fluids A, 5, pp. 2588–2599.
Schiaffino,  S., and Sonin,  A. A., 1997, “Motion and Arrest of a Molten Contact Line on a Cold Surface: An Experimental Study,” Phys. Fluids, 9, pp. 2217–2226.
Pasandideh-Fard,  M., Qiao,  Y. M., Chandra,  S., and Mostaghimi,  J., 1996, “Capillary Effects During Droplet Impact on a Solid Surface,” Phys. Fluids, 8, pp. S650–S659.
Zarzalejo,  L. J., Schmaltz,  K. S., and Amon,  C. H., 1999, “Molten Droplet Solidification and Substrate Remelting in Microcasting, Part I—Numerical Modeling and Experimental Varification,” Heat Mass Transfer, 34, pp. 477–485.
Tanner,  L. H., 1979, “The Spreading of Silicon Oil Drops on Horizontal Surfaces,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 12, pp. 1473–1484.
Voinov,  O. V., 1976, “Hydrodynamics of Wetting,” Fluid Dyn., 11, pp. 714–721.
Kistler, S. F., 1993, “Hydrodynamics of Wetting,” Wettability, Berg, J. C., ed., Marcel Dekker, New York.
Haferl, S., Poulikakos, D., and Zhao, Z., 1999, “Employing Scanning Force Microscopy to Investigate the Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Liquid Microdroplets on Smooth Surfaces: Gathered Experiences,” Poster Presentation, European Research Conferences (EURESCO) Solid/Fluid Interfaces: Complex Fluid Interfaces, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Italy.
Waldvogel,  J. M., Poulikakos,  D., Wallace,  D. B., and Marusak,  R., 1996, “Transport Phenomena in Picoliter Size Solder Droplet Dispension,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118, pp. 148–156.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the picoliter size solder droplet deposition apparatus
Grahic Jump Location
Flash videography technique used for recording the solder droplet deposition process
Grahic Jump Location
Measured points on the droplet surface. Points A and G determine the droplet wetting area diameter. D is the highest visible point of the surface, when viewing from the side, not always at the axis of symmetry. The distance from D to segment AG determines the visible droplet height H above the surface (identified by the segment AG). The shadow below the surface and the light spot inside the droplet are optical effects. The accuracy in determining the vertical and horizontal position of A and G decreases for wetting angle values near 90 deg, and larger than 110 deg, respectively.
Grahic Jump Location
Spreading, oscillations, and freezing of a solder droplet on a flat substrate. Initial conditions: v0=1.54 m/s,d0=80 μm,T1,0=210°C,T2,0=48°C.
Grahic Jump Location
Spreading, oscillations, and freezing of a solder droplet on a flat substrate. Initial conditions: v0=1.49 m/s,d0=84 μm,T1,0=210°C,T2,0=135°C.
Grahic Jump Location
Time evolution of the spread factor β, with the substrate temperature T2,0 as a parameter. The error is estimated in Section 2.3.
Grahic Jump Location
Time evolution of the dimensionless visible droplet height over the substrate H, with the substrate temperature T2,0 as a parameter. The error is estimated in Section 2.3.
Grahic Jump Location
Final, maximum and minimum droplet nondimensional visible height H as a function of T2,0. The error is estimated in Section 2.3.
Grahic Jump Location
Solidification time ts as a function of T2,0. The experimental values refer to the apparent solidification time, and the order of magnitude values refer to Eqs. (5) to (8).
Grahic Jump Location
Determination of the apparent dynamic wetting angles. Angle αL is determined by points (I,G,A), and angle αR by (H,A,G). The measurement incertitude δαR comes primarily from the positioning of A and H, its value is estimated +/−12 deg.
Grahic Jump Location
Evolution of the wetting angle α as a function of the spread factor β for the specified initial substrate temperatures T2,0 and impact velocities v0. The angular error is estimated in Fig. 10.
Grahic Jump Location
Time evolution of the spread factor β, the contact angle α, the first ripple angle γ, and the first ripple nondimensional height H11 in the case (v0=2.31 m/s,T2,0=59°C). The error is estimated in Section 2.3 and in Fig. 10.
Grahic Jump Location
Contact angle measurement with atomic force microscopy. The two vertical lines determine the position of the angle measurement on the splat profile. Frames (a) and (b) show the top view of the same (previously solidified) drop before (a) and after two minutes heating (b) above its melting temperature (180°C).




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In