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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat Exchangers

An Improved Design and Rating Analyses of Counter Flow Wet Cooling Towers

[+] Author and Article Information
Jameel-ur-Rehman Khan, Syed M. Zubair

Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

J. Heat Transfer 123(4), 770-778 (Jan 20, 2001) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1376395 History: Received January 11, 2000; Revised January 20, 2001
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

ASHRAE, 1983, ASHRAE Equipment Guide, chap. 3, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
ASHRAE, 1989, ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
Walker, W. H., Lewis, W. K., McAdams, W. H., and Gilliland, E. R., 1923, Principles of Chemical Engineering, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
Merkel, F., 1925, “Verdunstungshuhlung,” Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure (V.D.I.), 70 , pp. 123–128.
Webb,  R. L., 1984, “A Unified Theoretical Treatment for Thermal Analysis of Cooling Towers, Evaporative Condensers, and Fluid Coolers,” ASHRAE Trans., 90, No. 2, pp. 398–415.
Webb,  R. L., and Villacres,  A., 1984, “Algorithms for Performance Simulation of Cooling Towers, Evaporative Condensers, and Fluid Coolers,” ASHRAE Trans., 90, No. 2, pp. 416–458.
Jaber,  H., and Webb,  R. L., 1989, “Design of Cooling Towers by the Effectiveness-NTU Method,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111, No. 4, pp. 837–843.
Braun,  J. E., Klein,  S. A., and Mitchell,  J. W., 1989, “Effectiveness Models for Cooling Towers and Cooling Coils,” ASHRAE Trans., 95, No. 2, pp. 164–174.
El-Dessouky,  H. T. A., Al-Haddad,  A., and Al-Juwayhel,  F., 1997, “A Modified Analysis of Counter flow Cooling Towers,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 119, No. 3, pp. 617–626.
Hyland,  R. W., and Wexler,  A., 1983, “Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2O from 173.15 to 473.15 K,” ASHRAE Trans., 89, No. 2, pp. 500–519.
Hyland,  R. W., and Wexler,  A., 1983, “Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of Dry Air from 173.15 to 473.15 K, and of Saturated Moist Air from 173.15 to 372.15 K, at Pressure to 5 MPa,” ASHRAE Trans., 89, No. 2, pp. 520–535.
Myers, R. J., 1967, “The Effect of Dehumidification on the Air Side Heat Transfer Coefficient for a Finned-Tube Coil,” M.Sc. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Threlkeld, J. L., 1972, Thermal Environmental Engineering, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.
Kuehn, T. H., Ramsey, J. W., and Threlkeld, J. L. 1998, Thermal Environmental Engineering, 3rd ed. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.
Simpson, W. M., and Sherwood, T. K., 1946, “Performance of Small Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers,” Refrigerating Engineering, 52 (6), pp. 525–543 and 574–576.
Baker,  D. R., and Shryock,  H. A., 1961, “A Comprehensive Approach to the Analysis of Cooling Tower Performance,” Trans. ASME, 83, pp. 339–349.

Figures

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Schematic of a wet counter flow cooling tower
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Mass and energy balance of a wet counter flow cooling tower
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Water operating line on enthalpy-temperature diagram indicating the effect of tie line (E=−hc,w/hD) on saturated moist air enthalpy
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Comparisons of NTU with slope of tie line E=−hc,w/hD for different values of Lewis number Le
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Comparisons of effectiveness ε with temperature ratio R by varying the water-outlet temperature tw,o for different values of mass-flow rate ratios. Slope of the tie line E=11.1 (Fig. 5(a)), and E=∞ (Fig. 5(b)).
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Comparisons of effectiveness ε with temperature ratio R by varying water-outlet temperature tw,o (Fig. 6(a)), and air approach temperature (tw,i−twb,o) with R (Fig. 6(b)).
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Comparisons of NTU with temperature ratio R by varying water-outlet temperature tw,o
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Variations of maximum mass-flow rate ratio with temperature ratio R by varying the water-outlet temperature tw,o
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Comparisons of effectiveness ε with temperature ratio R by varying air inlet wet-bulb temperature twb,i (Fig. 9(a)), and air approach temperature (tw,i−twb,o) with R (Fig. 9(b))
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Comparisons of NTU with temperature ratio R by varying air inlet wet-bulb temperature tw,b,i
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Variations of maximum mass-flow rate ratio with temperature ratio R by varying the air inlet wet-bulb temperature twb,i
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Comparisons of effectiveness ε with inlet air wet bulb temperature twb,i (Fig. 12(a)), and air approach temperature (tw,i−twb,o) with R (Fig. 12(b))
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Comparisons of water outlet temperature tw,o with inlet air wet bulb temperature twb,i
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Comparisons of effectiveness ε with water inlet temperature tw,i (Fig. 14(a)), and water outlet temperature tw,o with tw,i (Fig. 14(b)).
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Comparisons of effectiveness ε with inlet air dry bulb temperature tdb,i (Fig. 15(a)), and water outlet temperature tw,o with tdb,i (Fig. 15(b))

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