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REVIEW PAPERS

Heat Transfer and Phase Transformations in Laser Annealing of Thin Si Films

[+] Author and Article Information
Seung-Jae Moon, Minghong Lee, Costas P. Grigoropoulos

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laser Thermal Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740

J. Heat Transfer 124(2), 253-264 (Nov 05, 2001) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1447941 History: Received October 10, 2001; Revised November 05, 2001
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

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Im,  J. S., Kim,  H. J., and Thompson,  M. O., 1993, “Phase Transformation Mechanisms involved on Excimer Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 63, pp. 1969–1971.
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Wood,  R. F., and Geist,  G. A., 1986, “Theoretical Analysis of Explosively Propagating Molten Layers in Pulsed-Laser-Irradiated A-Si,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 57, pp. 873–876.
Murakami,  K., Eryu,  O., Takita,  K., and Masuda,  K., 1987, “Explosive Crystallization Starting from an Amorphous-Silicon Surface Region During Long-Pulse Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, pp. 2203–2206.
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Stich,  I., Car,  R., and Parrinnello,  M., 1989, “Bonding and Disorder in Liquid Silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 63, pp. 2240–2243.
Hatano,  M., Moon,  S., Lee,  M., and Grigoropoulos,  C. P., 2000, “Excimer Laser-Induced Temperature Field in Melting and Resolidification of Silicon Thin Films,” J. Appl. Phys., 87, pp. 36–43.
Siegel, R., and Howell, J. R., 1992, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 3rd ed., Taylor and Francis, London.
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Moon,  S., Lee,  M., Hatano,  M., and Grigoropoulos,  C. P., 2000, “Interpretation of Optical Diagnostics for the Analysis of Laser Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon Films,” Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 4, pp. 25–38.
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Figures

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(a) The transient conductance and surface reflectance for a 0.20 J/cm2 pulse incident on the 320 nm amorphous film. The scale on the left axis is the observed voltage for conductance transient, with the corresponding molten thickness indicated on the right. This transient indicates a surface melt followed by an interior molten layer. (b) The thickness of the primary melt and the total p-Si formation as functions of the energy density on a 215 nm amorphous film. Inset: TEM cross section illustrating the formation of coarse and fine-grained p-Si at 0.5 J/cm2 . Note that the fine-grained p-Si extends to the original amorphous-crystalline interface 4. Courtesy of Professor Michael O. Thompson.
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(a) Laser pulse shape; (b) frontside time resolved optical reflectance (TROR) signal; (c) backside TROR signal; and (d) obtained depth of the interface between the self propagating buried l -Si layer and inner a-Si. The duration of explosive crystallization (EC) is shown in (c) 6. Courtesy of Professor Kuichi Murakami.
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Interface response function of c-Si and a-Si derived from the experimental constraints (1)–(4) defined in the text. The solid points are the experimental data used in the analysis.
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The schematic diagram of excimer laser annealing and optical diagnostic setup. The IR HeNe laser is used for measuring the front reflectivity (as shown in the figure), transmissivity, emissivity and electrical conductance 11. Reprinted by permission from AIP.
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Dependence of maximum temperature and melt depth on laser fluence 11. Reprinted by permission from AIP.
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Dependence of maximum temperature and average grain size on laser fluence 11. Reprinted by permission from AIP.
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(a) Transient front reflectivity, transmissivity, and emissivity (λ=1.52 μm) at the angle of 45 deg, (b) temperature and melt depth histories. The laser fluence of F=365 mJ/cm2 generates complete melting and liquid superheat 11. Reprinted by permission from AIP.
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Comparison of the measured maximum temperatures for a-Si and p-Si functions of the KrF excimer laser fluence 11. Reprinted by permission from AIP.
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Measured nucleation and peak temperatures as functions of the KrF excimer laser fluence
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Measured quench rate of the silicon melt as a function of the KrF excimer laser fluence
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(a) Schematic of the proposed phase mask excimer laser crystallization (PMELC) method. (b) The top view of the crystallized Si film for the case d=0.4 mm,θ=53 deg and Io=900 mJ/cm223. Courtesy of Professor Masakiyo Matsumura.
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(a) AFM and (b) TEM micrographs of a sample fabricated by laser interference crystallization (LIC) with a pulse energy of 200 mJ/cm2 per beam and a period of a 5 μm. The micrograph in (b) is an enlargement of the picture in the upper panel of Fig. 12. Fine grained material on the edges of the line (labeled B) is now flanked by long grains (labeled C), oriented towards the center of the lines and reaching lateral dimensions of almost 2 μm. The protrusions in the middle of the line appear flat due to the saturation of the AFM signal 24.
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(a) Projection system used for excimer laser crystallization (ELC). (b) Schematic of the electrical conductance setup 25. Reprinted with permission from AIP.
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(a) Dependence of lateral growth length on fluence gradient for 50 nm a-Si film. (b) Lateral growth length of about 1.5 μm is obtained under high fluence gradient 25. Reprinted with permission from AIP.
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Typical electrical conductance signal at high laser fluence 25. Reprinted with permission from AIP.
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A schematic of the laser flash photography experimental setup for probing the double laser recrystallization process 27. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Publishing.
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Lateral grains of larger than 20 μm induced by the double laser recrystallization technique; (a) Ar+ laser power, P = 938 mW with a 2 ms pulse, and F=174 mJ/cm2; and (b) Ar+ laser power, P=957 mW with a 2 ms pulse, and F=272 mJ/cm226. Reprinted with permission from Springer-Verlag.
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Images showing the sequence of the resolidification process. The total width of an image is 200 μm 27. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Publishing.
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The transient temperature evolution at the center point of the heated zone by (a) an Ar+ laser beam. The used power is 969 mW; (b) an excimer laser pulse of 203 mJ/cm2 .
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The isotherms viewed from the top; (a) t=2 ms after 2 ms Ar+ laser pulse of 969 mW; and (b) t=21.4 ns after the excimer laser pulse of 203 mJ/cm2 .
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Transient evolution of isotherms in the cross-section of the film; (a) t=9 ns, (b) t=14.5 ns, (c) t=19 ns, and (d) t=21.4 ns after the excimer laser pulse of 203 mJ/cm2 .

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