Gage,
A. A., and Baust,
J. 1998, “Mechanism of Tissue Injury in Cryosurgery,” Cryobiology, 37, pp. 171–186.

Nerem,
R. M. 2000, “Tissue Engineering: Confronting the Transplantation Crisis,” Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., 214, (Part H), pp. 95–99.

Mazur,
P. 1984, “Freezing of Living Cells: Mechanisms and Implications,” (review), Am. J. Physiol., 143, pp. C125–C142.

Budman,
H., Shitzer,
A., and Del Giudice,
S. 1986, “Investigation of Temperature Fields Around Embedded Cryoprobes,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 108, pp. 42–48.

Keanini,
R. G., and Rubinsky,
B. 1992, “Optimization of Multiprobe Cryosurgery,” ASME J. Heat Transfer , 114, pp. 796–801.

Bischof,
J. C., and Rubinsky,
B. 1993, “Microscale Heat and Mass Transfer of Vascular and Intracellular Freezing in the Liver,” ASME J. Heat Transfer 115, pp. 1029–1035.

Rabin,
Y., and Shitzer,
A. 1998, “Numerical Solution of the Multidimensional Freezing Problem During Cryosurgery,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 32–37.

Lunardini, V., 1981, “Finite Difference Methods for Freezing and Thawing,” in *Heat Transfer in Cold Climates*, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Co., New York.

Alexiades, V., and Solomon, A. D., 1993, *Mathematical Modeling of Melting and Freezing Processes*, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington.

Ozisik, M. N., 1994, *Finite Difference Methods in Heat Transfer*, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Hayes,
L. J., and Diller,
K. R. 1983, “Implementation of Phase Change in Numerical Models of Heat Transfer,” Journal Energy Research Technology, 105, pp. 431–435.

Hayes,
L. J., Diller,
K. R., Chang,
H.-J., and Lee,
H. S. 1988, “Prediction of Local Cooling Rates and Cell Survival During the Freezing of a Cylindrical Specimen,” Cryobiology, 25, pp. 67–82.

Rubinsky,
B., and Pegg,
D. E., 1988, “A mathematical model for the freezing process in biological tissue,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. B, 234, pp. 343–358.

Toner,
M., Cravalho,
E. G., and Karel,
M. 1990, “Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Intracellular Ice Formation During Freezing of Biological Cells,” J. Appl. Phys., 67, pp. 1582–1593.

Hayes, L. J., Diller, K. R., and Chang, H. J., 1986, “A Robust Numerical Method for Latent Heat Release During Phase Change,” *Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology*, HTD-Vol. 62, pp. 63–69.

Pitt,
R. E. 1990, “Cryobiological Implications of Different Methods of Calculating the Chemical Potential of Water in Partially Frozen Suspending Media,” Cryo-Letters, 11, pp. 227–240.

Mazur,
P. 1963, “Kinetics of Water Loss From Cells at Subzero Temperatures and the Likelihood of Intracellular Freezing,” J. Gen. Physiol., 47, pp. 347–369.

Levin,
R. L., Cravalho,
E. G., and Huggins,
C. E. 1976, “A Membrane Model Describing the Effect of Temperature on the Water Conductivity of Erythrocyte Membranes at Subzero Temperatures,” Cryobiology, 13, pp. 415–429.

Toner, M., 1993, “Nucleation of Ice Crystals Inside Biological Cells,” in *Advances In Low-Temperature Biology*, P. Steponkus ed., JAI Press, London, pp. 1–52.

Toner,
M., Tompkins,
R. G., Cravalho,
E. G., and Yarmush,
M. L. 1992, “Transport Phenomena During Freezing of Isolated Hepatocytes,” AIChE J., 38, pp. 1512–1522.

Smith, D. J., Devireddy, R. V., and Bischof, J. C., 1999, “Prediction of Thermal History and Interface Propagation During Freezing in Biological Systems—Latent Heat and Temperature-Dependent Property Effects,” *Proc. 5th ASME/JSME Thermal Eng. Joint Conf.*, San Diego CA. CD-ROM Publication, (http://www.me.umn.edu/divisions/tht/bhmt/publications/pdf/ASMEJSME-freezing.pdf).

Patankar, S. V., 1980, *Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow*, Hemisphere Publishing Co., New York.

Pazhayannur,
P. V., and Bischof,
J. C. 1997, “Measurement and Simulation of Water Transport During Freezing in Mammalian Liver Tissue,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 119, pp. 269–277.

Devireddy,
R. V., and Bischof,
J. C. 1998, “Measurement of Water Transport During Freezing in Mammalian Liver Tissue: Part II—The Use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 120, pp. 559–569.

Devireddy, R. V., Bischof, J. C., Leo, P. H., and Lowengrub, J. S., 2000, “Measurement and Modeling of Latent Heat Release During Freezing of Aqueous Solutions in a Small Container,” *Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology*, HTD-Vol. 368/BED-Vol. 47, pp. 23–31.

Fennema, O. R., Powrie, W. D., and Marth, E. H., 1973, *Low-Temperature Preservation of Foods and Living Matter*, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Devireddy,
R. V., Smith,
D. J., and Bischof,
J. C. 1999, “Mass Transfer During Freezing in Rat Prostate Tumor Tissue,” AIChE J., 45, No. 3, pp. 639–654.

Schulte, M. G., 1996, “The Effects of Varying Concentrations of DMSO on the Biophysical Parameters of Isolated Mammalian Cells During Freezing in the Presence of Extracellular Ice,” M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Smith, D. J., Josephson, S. S., and Bischof, J. C., 1997, “A Model of Cryosurgical Destruction in AT-1 Prostate Tumor Based on Cellular Damage Mechanisms,” *Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology*, HTD-Vol. 355, pp. 149–150.