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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

A Natural Circulation Model of the Closed Loop, Two-Phase Thermosyphon for Electronics Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
S. I. Haider, Yogendra K. Joshi

G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

Wataru Nakayama

Therm Tech International, 920-7 Higashi Koiso, Oh-Iso Machi, Kanagawa 255-0004, Japan

J. Heat Transfer 124(5), 881-890 (Sep 11, 2002) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1482404 History: Received August 28, 2001; Revised April 04, 2002; Online September 11, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Yuan, L., Joshi, Y. K., and Nakayama, W., 2001, “Effect of Condenser Location and Tubing Length on the Performance of a Compact Two-Phase Thermosyphon,” Proc. 2001 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Session on Heat Pipes and Multiphase Heat Transfer in Electronic System, November 11–16, New York, NY.
El-Genk,  M. S., and Saber,  H. H., 1998, “Heat Transfer Correlations for Liquid Film in the Evaporator of Enclosed, Gravity-Assisted Thermosyphons,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120, pp. 477–484.
Harley,  C., and Faghri,  A., 1994, “Complete Transient Two-Dimensional Analysis of Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphons Including the Falling Condensate Film,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116, pp. 418–426.
Zuo,  Z. J., and Gunnerson,  F. S., 1994, “Numerical Modeling of the Steady-state Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 37(17), pp. 2715–2722.
El-Genk,  M. S., and Saber,  H. H., 1999, “Determination of Operation Envelopes for Closed, Two-phase Thermosyphons,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 42, pp. 889–903.
Vincent,  C. C. J., and Kok,  J. B. W., 1992, “Investigation of the Overall Transient Performance of the Industrial Two-Phase Closed Loop Thermosyphon,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 35, No. 6, pp. 1419–1426.
Wang,  J. C. Y., and Ma,  Y., 1991, “Condensation Heat Transfer Inside Vertical and Inclined Thermosyphons,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113, pp. 777–780.
Carey, Van P., 1992, Liquid-Vapor Phase-change Phenomena, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Cammarata, G., Fichera, A., Froghieri, M., Misale, M., and Xibilia, M. G., 1999, “A New Modeling Methodology of Natural Circulation Loop for Stability Analysis,” Single and Two-Phase Natural Circulation, Proceedings of EUROTHERM SEMINAR No. 63, September 6–8, 1999, Genoa, Italy.
Tengblad, N., 1996, “Cooling of Electronic Components with Closed Loop Two-Phase Thermosiphons,” Engineering Licentiate Thesis, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 17–50, Chap. 3.
McAdams,  W. H., Woods,  W. K., and Heroman,  L. C., 1942, “Vaporization Inside Horizontal Tubes—II—Benzene-Oil Mixtures,” Trans. ASME, 64, p. 193.
Collier, J. G., 1981, Convective Boiling and Condensation, Second Edition, pp. 30–34. McGraw-Hill Book Company (UK) Ltd.
Bar-Cohen,  A., and Rohsenow,  W. M., 1984, “Thermally Optimum Spacing of Vertical Natural Convection Cooled, Parallel Plates,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 106, p. 116.
Ananiev, E. P., Boyko, L. D., and Kruzhilin, G. N., 1961, “Heat Transfer in the Presence of Steam Condensation in a Horizontal Tube,” Proc. 1st Int. Heat Transfer Conf., part II, p. 290.
Engineering Equation Solver (EES), F-Chart Software, www.fChart.com.

Figures

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Schematic of the experimental setup of the co-current, closed loop, two-phase thermosyphon
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Mass, momentum, and energy balance iterations in the thermosyphon model
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Available gravitational pressure head and loop mass flow rate
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Condenser inlet and outlet vapor qualities
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Latent and sensible contributions to the heat flux
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Condenser and evaporator overall void fractions
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Two-phase flow Reynolds numbers
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A comparison between the predicted and observed saturation temperatures

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