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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat and Mass Transfer

On the Potential for Homogeneous Nucleation of Salt From Aqueous Solution in a Natural Convection Boundary Layer

[+] Author and Article Information
Kenneth A. Smith

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 66-540, Cambridge, MA 02139

Marc Hodes

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139

Peter Griffith

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 7-044, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Heat Transfer 124(5), 930-937 (Sep 11, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1494089 History: Received October 20, 2000; Revised April 18, 2002; Online September 11, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Hodes, M., Smith, K. A., Hurst, W. S., Bowers, Jr., W., Griffith, P., and Sako, K., 2002, “Solubilities and Deposition Rates in Aqueous Sulfate Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressure,” submitted to Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer.
Hodes, M., Smith, K. A., and Griffith, P., 2002, “A Natural Convection Model for the Rate of Salt Deposition from Near-Supercritical, Aqueous, Salt Solutions,” submitted to J. Heat Transfer.
Hodes, M., 1998, “Measurements and Modeling of Deposition Rates from Near-Supercritical, Aqueous, Sodium Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate Solutions to a Heated Cylinder,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
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Gloyna, E. F., and Li, L., 1998, “Supercritical Water Oxidation for Wastewater and Sludge Remediation,” Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation, R. A. Meyers, ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 4780–4797.
Shaw, R. W., and Dahmen, N., “Destruction of Toxic Organic Materials Using Super-Critical Water Oxidation: Current State of the Technology,” Supercritical Fluids: Fundamentals and Applications, E. Kiran, P. G. Debenedetti and C. J. Peters, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Hurst,  W. A., Hodes,  M. S., Bowers,  W., Bean,  V. E., Maslar,  J. E., Smith,  K. A., and Griffith,  P., 2002, “Optical Flow Cell and Apparatus for Solubility, Salt Deposition and Raman Spectroscopic Studies in Aqueous Solutions near the Water Critical Point,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 22(2), pp. 157–166.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Hypothetical set of conditions for which supersaturation and/or homogeneous nucleation occurs in the boundary layer, but dT/dC|i<dT/dC|sat,i
Grahic Jump Location
Loci of temperature-concentration states connecting bulk and SLSI conditions for selected Lewis numbers. Below the solubility line is a one phase fluid region and above it a two phase, solid-fluid region.
Grahic Jump Location
Loci of (T,C) states connecting a bulk condition to three successive SLSI conditions. Loci correspond to Le=100, Pr=0.72, and Ñ=O1
Grahic Jump Location
Prandtl number of pure water versus temperature at a pressure of 250 bar
Grahic Jump Location
Critical Lewis number as a function of time for the sodium sulfate and potassium sulfate deposition experiments in which the concentration of salt in the inlet stream was 4 wt percent
Grahic Jump Location
Trajectories of (T,C) states connecting bulk and SLSI conditions at the beginning of the sodium sulfate deposition experiments for which Cin equals 4 wt percent. Unlabeled trajectories correspond to Le=15, 50.6, and 75, respectively, between the Le=1 and Le=100 trajectories.
Grahic Jump Location
Trajectories of (T,C) states connecting bulk and SLSI conditions at the beginning of the potassium sulfate deposition experiments for which Cin equals 4 wt percent. Unlabeled trajectories correspond to Le=7.2, 15, 25, and 50 respectively between the Le=1 and Le=100 trajectories.
Grahic Jump Location
Idealized phase boundary conducive to homogeneous nucleation in the boundary layer and trajectories connecting bulk and SLSI conditions for Le=1 and Le→∞
Grahic Jump Location
Lanthanum selenate solubility data (Friend 21) and trajectories connecting bulk and SLSI conditions at Le=1, Le=60, and Le→∞
Grahic Jump Location
Lithium carbonate solubility data (Linke 19) and trajectory connecting bulk and SLSI conditions at Le=60. Solubility boundary separates one phase fluid region from two phase, solid-fluid region.

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