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TECHNICAL NOTES

A Thermocapillary Mechanism for Lateral Motion of Bubbles on a Heated Surface During Subcooled Nucleate Boiling

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul J. Sides

Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213

J. Heat Transfer 124(6), 1203-1207 (Dec 03, 2002) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1517268 History: Received October 10, 2001; Revised July 11, 2002; Online December 03, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Marangoni,  C. G. M., 1871, “Ueber die Ausbreitung der tropfen einer flüssigkeit auf der oberfläche einer anderen,” Poggendorf’s Ann. d. Phys. u Chemie, 143, p. 337.
Sternling,  C. V., and Scriven,  L. E., 1959, “Interfacial Turbulence: Hydrodynamic Instability and the Marangoni Effect,” AIChE J., 5, p. 514.
Sides,  P. J., and Tobias,  C. W., 1985, “A Close View of Gas Evolution From the Back Side of a Transparent Electrode,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, p. 583.
Guelcher,  S. A., Solomentsev,  Y. E., Sides,  P. J., and Anderson,  J. L., 1998, “Thermocapillary Phenomena and Bubble Coalescence During Electrolytic Gas Evolution,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 145, p. 1848.
Kasumi,  H., Solomentsev,  Y., Guelcher,  S., and Anderson,  J. L., 2000, “Bubble Aggregation due to Thermocapillary Flow,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 232, p. 111.
McGrew,  J. L., Bamford,  F., and Rehm,  T., 1966, “Marangoni Flow: An Additional Mechanism in Boiling Heat Transfer,” Science, 153, p. 1106.
Ervin,  J., Merte,  H., Keller,  R., and Kirk,  K., 1992, “Transient Pool Boiling in Microgravity,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 35, p. 659.
Qui, D., Dhir, V. K., Hasan, M., and Chao, D., 2000, “Single and Multiple Bubble Dynamics During Nucleate Boiling Under Low Gravity Conditions,” Proc. 34th National Heat Transfer Conf., ASME, New York, 1, p. 865 .
Marek,  R., and Straub,  J., 2001, “The Origin of Thermocapillary Convection in Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 44, p. 619.
Kim,  J., Benton,  J. F., and Wisniewski,  D., 2002, “Poolboiling Heat Transfer on Small Heaters: Effect of Gravity and Subcooling,” Intl. J. Heat and Mass Trans., 45, p. 3919.
Kim,  J., and Benton,  J. F., 2002, “Highly Subcooled Pool Boiling Heat Transfer at Various Gravity Levels,” Intl. J. Heat and Fluid Flow, 23, p. 497.
Betz,  J., and Straub,  J., 2001, “Numerical and Experimental Study of the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow by Thermocapillary Convection Around Gas Bubbles,” Heat and Mass Transfer, 37, p. 215.
Young,  O. N., Goldstein,  J. S., and Block,  M., 1959, “The Motion of Bubbles in a Vertical Temperature Gradient,” J. Fluid Mech., 6, p. 350.
Ibrahim,  E. A. and Judd,  R. L., 1985, “An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Subcooling on Bubble Growth and Waiting Time in Nucleate Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 107, p. 168.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1985, 66th edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. F32.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
(a) A bubble in saturated boiling. The bubble is immersed entirely in superheated liquid. The fluid flow is due to the expanding interface because the vapor liquid interface is an isotherm. The tracer bubble does not move toward the other bubble. (b) A bubble of sparingly soluble electrolytically evolved gas near an electrode that is the source of the gas and is itself warm with respect to the electrolyte. The low thermal conductivity of the bubble relative to the thermal conductivity of the liquid supports a temperature gradient at the gas/liquid interface, which causes the liquid to flow away from the electrode and to entrain a tracer bubble. (c) A bubble being generated by vaporization at a heated surface, and consisting primarily of vapor with some amount of sparingly soluble gas immersed in subcooled liquid. Thermocapillary flow ensues because there is a temperature gradient along the surface of the bubble; as in (b) the temperature gradient engenders a surface tension gradient that pumps liquid in the vicinity of each bubble away from the heated surface. Adjacent bubbles entrain each other and consequently move toward each other.
Grahic Jump Location
Experimental observation of the thermocapillary pumping effect. Bubbles move together, apart, and back toward each other as the surface on which they rest is first heated, then cooled, then heated. Air in silicone oil. The bubbles are 1 mm in diameter. See Kasumi et al. 5 for details of the experiments and theory.
Grahic Jump Location
Phenomena occurring during evolution of a bubble from an evaporating liquid containing dissolved noncondensible gases. Heat evaporates the liquid; dissolved gases also enter the vapor phase but accumulate at the top of the bubble as the vapor condenses. The accumulation of gas inside the bubble requires the temperature of the liquid at the top to decrease, which enhances the thermocapillary motion (After Marek and Straub 9).
Grahic Jump Location
A sketch of the simplified geometry for scaling analysis. The bubble is modeled as a block of vapor for use of Cartesian coordinates. The vertical length scale of the block corresponds to a bubble radius a.

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