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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Transient Thermal Modeling of In-Situ Curing During Tape Winding of Composite Cylinders

[+] Author and Article Information
Jonghyun Kim, Tess J. Moon, John R. Howell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712

J. Heat Transfer 125(1), 137-146 (Jan 29, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1527912 History: Received August 24, 2001; Revised September 06, 2002; Online January 29, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Hayward,  J. S., and Harris,  B., 1990, “Effect of Process Variables on the Quality of RTM Mouldings,” SAMPE J., 26, pp. 39–46.
Kittelson,  J. L., 1990, “Tape Winding: A Logical Progression and Alternative to Filament Winding,” SAMPE J., 26, pp. 37–42.
Sarrazin,  H., and Springer,  G. S., 1995, “Thermochemical and Mechanical Aspects of Composite Tape Laying,” J. Compos. Mater., 29, pp. 1908–1943.
Lee,  S. Y., and Springer,  G. S., 1988, “Effects of Cure on the Mechanical Properties of Composites,” J. Compos. Mater., 22, pp. 15–29.
Peters,  W. M., and Springer,  G. S., 1988, “Effects of Cure and Sizing on Fiber-Matrix Bond Strength,” J. Compos. Mater., 21, pp. 157–171.
Spencer, B. E., and Steele, L. F., 1984, “Thick Wall Structures—Design and Manufacturing Techniques,” 29th National SAMPE Symposium, pp. 80–91.
Bogetti,  T. A., and Gillespie,  J. W., 1991, “Two-Dimensional Cure Simulation of Thick Thermosetting Composites,” J. Compos. Mater., 25, pp. 239–273.
Burwasser,  J. T., and Springer,  G. S., 1988, “Electromechanical Curing of Filament Wound Composite Cylinders,” J. Compos. Mater., 22, pp. 81–100.
Chern,  B.-C., Moon,  T. J., and Howell,  J. R., 1995, “Thermal Analysis of In-Situ Curing for Thermoset, Hoop-Wound Structures Using Infrared Heating: Part I—Predictions Assuming Independent Scattering,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(3), pp. 674–680.
Chern, B.-C., Moon, T. J., and Howell, J. R., 2002, “On-Line Processing of Unidirectional Fiber Composites Using Radiative Heating: I. Model,” J. Compos. Mater., 36 .
Kim,  C., Teng,  H., Tucker,  C. L., and White,  S. R., 1995, “The Continuous Curing Process for Thermoset Polymer Composites. Part 1: Modeling and Demonstration,” J. Compos. Mater., 29, pp. 1222–1252.
Yokota,  M. J., 1978, “In-Process Controlled Curing of Resin Matrix Composites,” SAMPE J., 14(4), pp. 11–17.
Hjellming,  L. N., and Walker,  J. S., 1989, “Thermal Curing Cycles for Composite Cylinders with Thick Walls and Thermoset Resins,” J. Compos. Mater., 23, pp. 1048–1064.
Martinez,  G. M., 1991, “Fast Cures for Thick Laminated Organic Matrix Composites,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 46, pp. 439–450.
Tang,  J., Lee,  W. I., and Springer,  G. S., 1987, “Effects of Cure Pressure on Resin Flow, Voids, and Mechanical Properties,” J. Compos. Mater., 21, pp. 421–440.
Twardowski,  T. E., Lin,  S. E., and Geil,  P. H., 1993, “Curing in Thick Composite Laminates: Experiment and Simulation,” J. Compos. Mater., 27, pp. 216–250.
Korotokov,  V. N., Chekanov,  Y. A., and Rozenberg,  B. A., 1993, “The Simultaneous Progress of Filament Winding and Curing for Polymer Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 47, pp. 383–388.
Kim, J., Moon, T. J., and Howell, J. R., 1996, “Effects of Process Variables on In-Situ Curing For Thick Composites Using Infrared Heating,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition, Vol. 96-WA/AMD-11, pp. 1–14.
Chern,  B.-C., Moon,  T. J., and Howell,  J. R., 1994, “Modeling of Radiation-Initiated Cure-on-the-Fly of Epoxy-Matrix Composite Cylinders,” J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci., 2(4), pp. 373–390.
Chern,  B.-C., Moon,  T. J., Howell,  J. R., and Tan,  W., 2002, “New Experimental Data for Enthalpy of Reaction and Temperature- and Degree-of-Cure-Dependent Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity of the Hercules 3501-6 Epoxy System,” J. Compos. Mater., 36(17), pp. 2061–2072.
Kim,  J., Moon,  T. J., and Howell,  J. R., 2002, “Cure Kinetic Model, Heat of Reaction and Glass Transition Temperature of AS4/3501-6 Graphite/Epoxy Prepregs,” J. Compos. Mater., 36(21), pp. 2479–2498.
Pitchumani,  R., and Yao,  S.-C., 1993, “Non-Dimensional Analysis of an Idealized Thermoset Composites Manufacture,” J. Compos. Mater., 27, pp. 613–636.
Etemad,  G. A., 1955, “Free-Convection Heat Transfer from a Rotating Horizontal Cylinder to Ambient Air With Interferometric Study of Flow,” Trans. ASME, pp. 1283–1289.
Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington.
Schneider,  G. E., and Zedan,  M., 1981, “A Modified Strongly Implicit Procedure for the Numerical Solution of Field Problems,” Numer. Heat Transfer, 4, pp. 1–19.
Stone,  H. L., 1968, “Iterative Solution of Implicit Approximations of Multidimensional Partial Differential Equations,” SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Numer. Anal., 5, pp. 530–559.
Incropera, F. P., and DeWitt, D. P., 1990, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Chern,  B.-C., Moon,  T. J., and Howell,  J. R., 1993, “Measurement of the Temperature and Cure-Dependence of the Thermal Conductivity of Epoxy Resin,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 6, pp. 157–174.
Chern,  B.-C., Moon,  T. J., and Howell,  J. R., 2002, “On-Line Processing of Unidirectional Fiber Composites Using Radiative Heating: II. Radiative Properties, Experimental Validation and Process Parameter Selection,” J. Compos. Mater., 36(16), pp. 1935–1965
Kim, J., 1997, “Thermal Modeling of In-Situ Curing of Composite Cylinders Using Infrared Radiation,” Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Kim, J., Moon, T. J., and Howell, J. R., 2002, “In-Situ Curing of Helically-Wound Composite Cylinders: II. Materials Characterization and Experimental Validation,” J. Compos. Mater., in press.
Yee,  K.-C., and Moon,  T. J., 2003, “Compressive Strengths of In-Situ Cured Graphite/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy Composite Cylinders,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 22(3), pp. 131–147.
Yee, K.-C., and Moon, T. J., “Assessment of In-Situ Cured Thermoset Composite Cylinders: Residual Stresses and Compressive Strength,” Composites, Part A, to appear.
Yee, K.-C., and Moon, T. J., 2002, “Process-Induced Residual Stresses in a Continuously-Cured, Hoop-Wound Thermoset Composite Cylinder, II: Validation,” J. Compos. Mater., in press.
Kugler,  D., and Moon,  T. J., 2002, “The Effects of Mandrel Material and Tow Tension on Defects and Compressive Strength of Hoop-Wound, On-Line Consolidated, Composite Rings,” Composites, Part A, 33(6), pp. 861–876.
Yee,  K.-C., and Moon,  T. J., 2002, “Plane Thermal Stress Analysis of an Orthotropic Cylinder Subject to an Arbitrary, Transient, Asymmetric Temperature Distribution,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 69, pp. 632–640.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Hoop winding while curing by in-situ infrared (IR) heating. Continuous fibers within the prepreg lie in the circumferential direction in the wound composite cylinder. Prepreg width is assumed to be equal to the cylinder length.
Grahic Jump Location
Two-dimensional computational domain, composed of an isotropic mandrel and orthotropic, continuously wound, composite cylinder. Uniform radially-inward IR heating and negligible axial energy losses are assumed. Material accretion occurs at an effective laydown point θl(τ) (Eq. (14)) in advance of the physical knit point at θ=0; radiant preheating of the incoming tape occurs between θl(τ)≤θ≤0.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of the temperature distributions in the top 20 layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg predicted by the quasi-steady state 18 and current, fully transient approaches. Integer number on the x axis label represents the layer number. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 480 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in)).
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature evolutions during winding in the bottom, middle and top AS4/3501-6 prepreg layers and stainless steel mandrel after 10, 50, and 100 total layers are wound. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 430 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).): (a) 10 layers wound; (b) 50 layers wound; and (c) 100 layers wound.
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature evolutions during winding in the bottom, middle and top AS4/3501-6 prepreg layers and stainless steel mandrel after 10, 50, and 100 total layers are wound. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 480 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).): (a) 10 layers wound; (b) 50 layers wound; and (c) 100 layers wound.
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature histories in the 1st, 25th, and 50th wound layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 430 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Degree-of-cure evolutions in the 1st, 25th, and 50th wound layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 430 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature histories in the 1st, 25th, and 50th wound layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 480 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Degree-of-cure evolutions in the 1st, 25th, and 50th wound layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Initial mandrel temperature, 480 K; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature histories in the top 20 layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg for initial mandrel temperatures of 380, 430, and 480 K. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Degree-of-cure distributions in the 100 layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg for initial mandrel temperatures of 380, 430, and 480 K. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature distributions in the top 5 layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg radiatively cured over one-quarter and one-half of its circumference. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Degree-of-cure distributions in top 100 layers a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg radiatively cured over one-quarter and one-half of its circumference. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Temperature distributions in the top 5 layers of a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg at the winding speeds of 10, 20, and 30 rpm. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Degree-of-cure distributions in top 100 layers a composite cylinder wound from AS4/3501-6 prepreg at the winding speeds of 10, 20, and 30 rpm. (Winding speed, 10 rpm; IR lamp heat flux, 48.6 kW/m2 ; Mandrel diameter, 12.7 cm (5 in).)
Grahic Jump Location
Process window for a AS4/3501-6 prepreg composite cylinder wound on a 12.7 cm (5 in) diameter mandrel and radiatively cured over one-quarter of its circumference
Grahic Jump Location
Process window for a AS4/3501-6 prepreg composite cylinder wound on a 25.4 cm (10 in) diameter mandrel and radiatively cured over one-quarter of its circumference

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