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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Electronic Cooling

Active Thermal Control of Distributed Parameter Systems With Application to Testing of Packaged IC Devices

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthew Sweetland, John H. Lienhard

W. M. Rohsenow Heat and Mass Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 3-162, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307

J. Heat Transfer 125(1), 164-174 (Jan 29, 2003) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1527908 History: Received December 18, 2001; Revised September 09, 2002; Online January 29, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Pfahnl, A. C., Lienhard V, J. H., and Slocum, A. H., 1999, “Thermal Management and Control in Testing Packaged Integrated Circuit Devices,” Proc. 34th Intersociety Energy Conversion Conf., Vancouver BC, Paper No. 1999-01-2723.
Tadayon, P., 2000, “Thermal Challenges During Microprocessor Testing,” Intel Technology Journal, Q3 .
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Malinoski, M., Maveety, J., Knostman, S., and Jones, T., 1998, “Test Site Thermal Control System for At-Speed Manufacturing Testing,” Proc. IEEE Intl. Test Conf., Washington, DC, pp. 119–128.
Pfahnl, A. C., Lienhard V, J. H., and Slocum, A. H., 1998, “Temperature Control of a Handler Test Interface,” Proc. IEEE Intl. Test Conf., Washington, DC, pp. 114–118.
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Sweetland, M., 2001, “Design of Thermal Control Systems for Testing of Electronics,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
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Figures

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Typical cross-section of a high power microprocessor device
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Schematic diagram of simplified device for transient analysis. Qc is the magnitude of the control input and α is the phase shift of the control input. Qd is the magnitude of the die power profile.
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Schematic drawing of decomposition for solution to transient temperature profile in integrated heat spreader
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Solution for phase shift and magnitude of control power profile
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Temperature response of IHS to a 10 Hz die power profile with Qd=10 W/cm2. For this system, hc=1200 W/m2 and the IHS is 1.8 mm thick.
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Temperature response of IHS to a 10 Hz die power profile with Qd=10 W/cm2 and a control power profile imposed on the front face
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IHS temperature profile for ideal control of die temperatures
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Temperature profile for die and back-face of IHS for ω=10 Hz, Qd=10 W/cm2 and a tolerance ΔT=4 K
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Calculated die temperature using finite difference model to confirm analytic solution for control input. Target ΔT is 4 K with hc=1200 W/m2K,Rt=0.42 cm2K/W,b=1.8 mm, and Qd=10 W/cm2.
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Die and control powers and die temperature change, θ, for square-wave die power profile
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Die and control powers and die temperature change, θ, for triangle-wave die power profile
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Control power limits for specified die power amplitude, Qd, and die temperature tolerance, ΔT, as a function of nondimensional die power frequency, (bL)2
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Control power limits for specified die power amplitude, Qd, and die temperature tolerance, ΔT, as a function of nondimensional die power frequency, (bL)2
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Effect on control power limits of: (a) interfacial thermal resistance; (b) IHS thickness; and (c) die thickness.
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Transient fin temperature profile for 10 Hz example. Top: temperature variation at base and tip of fin. Bottom: maximum/minimum temperature defect along the length of the fin.
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Lateral conduction into IHS for various hc:Q=cyclic lateral loss into IHS; ΔTb=temperature fluctuation amplitude of IHS at die edge. Insert shows discretization of IHS for numerical solution.

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