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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Bubbles, Particles, and Droplets

Temperature and Volumetric Fraction Measurements in a Hot Gas Laden With Water Droplets

[+] Author and Article Information
Paolo Ruffino, Marino di Marzo

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742

J. Heat Transfer 125(2), 356-364 (Mar 21, 2003) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1561453 History: Received March 28, 2001; Revised November 06, 2002; Online March 21, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Chow,  W. K., 1989, “On the Effect of a Sprinkler Water Spray,” Fire Technol., 25, pp. 364–373.
Grissom,  W. M., and Wierum,  F. A., 1981, “Liquid Spray Cooling of a Heated Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 24, pp. 261–271.
diMarzo,  M., and Tinker,  S., 1996, “Evaporative Cooling Due to a Sparse Spray,” Fire Saf. J., 27, pp. 289–303.
White, G., Tinker, S., and diMarzo, M., 1994, “Modeling of Dropwise Evaporative Cooling on a Semi-Infinite Solid Subjected to Radiant Heat Input,” Int. Proc. IV Int. Symp. on Fire Safety Science, T. Kashiwagi, ed., International Association of Fire Safety Science, pp. 217–228.
Ruffino, P., and di Marzo, M., 2001, “Measurements of Temperature in a Hot Gas Laden With Water Droplets,” NIST-GCR-01-827
Kuo, K. K., 1986, Principles of Combustion, Wiley & Sons.
Adrian,  R. J., 1991, “Particle-Imaging Techniques for Experimental Fluid Mechanics,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 23, pp. 261–304.
Crowe, C., Sommerfeld, M., and Tsuji, Y., 1998, Multiphase Flows With Droplets and Particles, CRC Press.
Shrakey,  P. A., Talley,  D. G., Sankar,  S. V., and Bachalo,  W. D., 2000, “Phase-Doppler Interferometry With Probe-to-Droplet Size Ratios Less Than Unity. II. Application of the Technique,” Appl. Opt., 39(22), pp. 3887–3893.
Widmann,  J. F., Presser,  C., and Leigh,  S. D., 2001, “Improving Phase Doppler Volume Flux Measurements in Low Data Rate Applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 12(8), pp. 1180–1190.
Bete Nozzles Inc., private communications.
Zakauskas, A., and Ziugzda, J., 1985, Heat Transfer of a Cylinder in Cross-Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Hishida,  K., Maeda,  M., and Ikai,  S., 1980, “Heat Transfer From a Flat Plate in a Two-Component Mist Flow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 102, pp. 513–518.
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Aihara,  T., and Fu,  W. S., 1989, “Effect of Droplet-Size Distribution and Gas-Phase Flow Separation Upon Inertia Collection of Droplets by Bluff-Bodies in a Gas-Liquid Mist Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 12, pp. 389–403.
Emmerson,  G. S., 1975, “The Effect of Pressure and Surface Material on the Leidenfrost Point of Discrete Droplets of Water,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 8, pp. 381–386.
Yao,  S. C., Hochreiter,  L. E., and Cai,  K. Y., 1988, “Dynamics of Droplets Impacting on Thin Heated Strips,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, pp. 214–220.
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Figures

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Sketch of the ALTEC sensor
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Calibration curve to determine the slope Q in Eq. (24) (⋄ dry conditions, ♦ wet conditions)
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Comparison between the temperature measured by the ALTEC sensor and the values read by a thermocouple in dry conditions
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Velocity-temperature correlations for a natural convection plume versus the ECSAT facility operating conditions. The error bar abound each experimental point represents one standard deviations about the mean value. The solid lines represent the correlation by Alpert 21.
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Comparison between the temperature measured by the ALTEC sensor and the values obtained from the ECSAT facility in wet conditions (the methodology to obtain the ECSAT data is described in the paper)
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Water volumetric fraction: values obtained with the ALTEC sensor versus optical measurements. The error bars about each point represent one standard deviation about the mean value.
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Function g(w) versus w from Eqs. (22) and (23)
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Controlling circuit for the ALTEC sensor
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Collection efficiency as a function of the sensor diameter
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Difference between the gas temperature and the temperature read by a sensor in a hot gas laden with water droplets as a function of its diameter
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Evaluation of the constant C experimentally using Eq. (15) (Data Regression) and analytically using Eq. (14) (Theory). The dashed lines bound the ±10 percent region about the data regression.
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Residual droplet volume versus the fraction of residual liquid for the PJ8 and PJ10 nozzles
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Droplet Size Distribution for the PJ8 and PJ10 nozzle.
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Temperature distribution downstream the orifice in the ECSAT facility (⋄ dry conditions, ♦ wet conditions). The thin line is given by Eq. (6) and the thick line is given by Eq. (5).
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Sketch of the test section in the ECSAT facility (dimensions in meters)

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