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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Measurement Techniques

A Study of Fin Effects in the Measurement of Temperature Using Surface-Mounted Thermocouples

[+] Author and Article Information
T. C. Tszeng, V. Saraf

Thermal Processing Technology Center, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616

J. Heat Transfer 125(5), 926-935 (Sep 23, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1597622 History: Received January 15, 2002; Revised April 22, 2003; Online September 23, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

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Wallis,  R. A., and Craighead,  I. W., 1995, “Prediction of Residual Stresses in Gas Turbine Components,” JOM, 47(10), pp. 69–71.
Schroder, R., 1984, “Some Influences on the Development of Thermal and Residual Stresses in Quenched Steel Cylinders With Different Dimensions,” 1984, Proceedings of International Symposium on the Calculation of Internal Stresses in Heat Treatment of Metallic Materials, 1 , E. Attebo and T. Ericsson, eds., Linkoping, Sweden, pp. 1–22.
Zhou, G. F., and Tszeng, T. C., 2002, “Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficients by Inverse Calculation in Conjunction With Embedded Model for Surface Mounted Thermocouples,” paper in preparation.
Park, J. E., Childs, K. W., Ludtka, G. M., and Chu, W., 1991, “Correction of Errors in Intrinsic Thermocouple Signals Recorded During Quenching,” National Heat Treat Conference, Minneapolis, MN, July 26–31.
Cross, M. F., Bennett, J. C., Jr., and Bass, R. W., 1999, “Developing Empirical Equations for Heat Transfer Coefficients on Metallic Disks,” 19th ASM-HTS Conference Proceedings, pp. 335–342.
Saraf, V., 2001, “Distortion Characterization and Quench Process Modeling in Heat Treated Components of IN 718 Superalloy and AISI 4142 Steel,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.
Tszeng, T. C., 2000, “Determination of Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions of Quenching Operations in Heat Treating Processes,” SME Technical Paper CM00-123.
Beck, J. V., and Osman, A. M., 1992, “Analysis of Quenching and Heat Treating Processes Using Inverse Heat Transfer Method,” Proceedings of the First International Conference, Quenching and Control of Distortion, G. E. Totten, ed., ASM International, pp. 147–153.
Beck, J. V., Blackwell, B., and St. Clair, Jr., C. R., 1985, Inverse Heat Conduction: Ill-Posed Problems, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Gummadam, K. C., and Tszeng, T. C., 2001, “An Integrated Approach to Estimate the Surface Heat Transfer Coefficients in Heat Treating Processes,” ASM International/IFHTSE Symposium on Quenching and Control of Distortion, October 5–8, 2001, Indianapolis, IN.
Doebelin, E. O., 1975, Measurement Systems Applications and Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, p. 522.
Moffat, R. J., 1962, The Gradient Approach to Thermocouple Circuitry, From Temperature—Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Reinhold, New York.
Hennecke,  D. K., and Sparrow,  E. M., 1970, “Local Heat Sink on a Convectively Cooled Surface—Application to Temperature Measurement Error,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 13, pp. 287–304.
Sparrow, E. M., 1976, “Error Estimates in Temperature Measurements,” Measurement in Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., E. R. G. Eckert and R. J. Goldstein, eds., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Chap. 1.
Keltner,  N. R., and Beck,  J. V., 1983, “Surface Temperature Measurement,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105, pp. 312–318.
Litkouhi,  B., and Beck,  J. V., 1985, “Intrinsic Thermocouple Analysis Using Multinode Unsteady Surface Element Method,” AIAA J., 23, pp. 1609–1614.
Segall,  A. E., 1994, “Corrective Solutions for Intrinsic Thermocouples Under Polynomial Substrate Loading,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116, pp. 759–761.
HOTPOINT System Manual, 2001, T. Calvin Tszeng, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.
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Buchmayr,  B., and Kirkaldy,  J. S., 1990, “Modeling of the Temperature Field, Transformation Behavior, Hardness and Mechanical Response of Low Alloy Steels During Cooling From the Austenite Region,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 8, pp. 127–136.
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Figures

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Two types of junction for installing surface-mounted thermocouples
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The simple two-dimensional axisymmetric model and FEM mesh for surface-mounted thermocouple on an object. The mesh only represents symmetric half of the domain. The top surface of the parent object and the thermocouple wire surface are exposed to the environment; all other surfaces are assumed to have zero heat flux (insulated). (a) Thermocouple wire diameter=0.4 mm; (b) Wire diameter=0.04 mm.
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Distribution of temperature in the vicinity of thermocouple junction at 0.1 second in quenching. Initial temperature is 945°C. Wire diameter=0.4 mm
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Temperature histories at the center and at the edge of the thermocouple junction, respectively. Wire diameter=0.4 mm. Also shown is the undisturbed temperature at the surface (at a location 5 mm from the center of the junction). (a) In the first 0.1 second; (b) In the first one second.
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Temperature histories at the center and at the edge of the thermocouple junction, respectively. Wire diameter=0.04 mm. Also shown is the undisturbed temperature at the surface (at a location 5 mm from the center of the junction).
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Experimental results from two surface-mounted K-type thermocouples on a 4142 steel disk with two different wire diameters of 0.32 mm and 0.038 mm, respectively
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Temperature histories at the center and at the edge of the insulated thermocouple junction, respectively. Wire diameter d=0.4 mm. Also shown is the undisturbed temperature at the surface (at a location 5 mm from the center of the junction).
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Embedded computational model for calculating the temperature field in and around the thermocouple
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Mesh system used in conjunction with the embedded computational model for calculating the temperature field in and around the thermocouple corresponding to the examples of Fig. 2. The mesh shown is the right half of the actual axisymmetric part. The thermocouple is located at the upper left corner of the domain.
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Temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple junction when submodel is used. Wire diameter and length are indicated in each case. There are two coinciding curves for the case of wire diameter of 0.4 mm; one from the submodel and the other from the full model of Fig. 2.
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Temperature history at the center of each thermocouple mounted at different locations on the top surface of the parent object (Fig. 10). Wire diameter=0.04 mm. The exact locations of thermocouple are shown in Fig. 10; different location corresponds to different element size in the parent object.
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Histories of surface temperature at locations of different distance from the center of the thermocouple junction; the distances are zero (center), one wire diameter, and two wire diameter. The parent object is in Fig. 10. (a) Wire diameter=0.4 mm, (b) wire diameter=0.04 mm.
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Temperature history at the center of a thermocouple mounted at the center on the top surface of the parent object (Fig. 10). Wire diameter=0.04 mm. For the parent object, thermal conductivity k=15 W/m/K and heat capacity ρc=5×106J/m3/K. For the thermocouple material, thermal conductivity k has the values of 15, 5 or 0.005 W/m/K, and heat capacity ρc=5×106J/m3/K.
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Measured and calculated temperature at the thermocouple locations indicated in Fig. 14. The calculated temperatures are with or without the fin effects by the thermocouple wires. Wire diameter d=0.25 mm.
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A comparison between the calculated surface heat transfer coefficient and that obtained by Buchmayr and Kirkaldy 21. The calculated HTC from the present study is plotted against the undisturbed surface temperature, not the temperature at the thermocouple junction. The calculated HTC only reached to about 200°C.
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Comparison of the fin effects between thermocouples of different wire diameter. The temperatures at the center of the junction for both cases are shown.
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Instrumented Jominy end quench specimen that is 100 mm-in-length×25.5 mm-in-diam. Two thermocouples of intrinsic junctions are installed at the indicated locations. TC 1 is located at the center of the end; TC 2 is located on the lateral surface (unwetted) at a distance of 3.8 mm from the quenched end. Wire diameter is 0.25 mm, and spacing between the two junctions is one wire diameter.

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