0
TECHNICAL PAPERS: Natural and Mixed Convection

A Natural Convection Model for the Rate of Salt Deposition From Near-Supercritical, Aqueous Solutions

[+] Author and Article Information
Marc Hodes

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

Kenneth A. Smith

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 66-540, Cambridge, MA 02139

Peter Griffith

Department of Mechanical Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 7-044, Cambridge, MA 02139

J. Heat Transfer 125(6), 1027-1037 (Nov 19, 2003) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1603772 History: Received June 10, 2002; Revised June 03, 2003; Online November 19, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Shaw, R. W., Brill, T. B., Clifford, A. A., Eckert, C. A., and Franck, E. U., 1991, “Supercritical Water: A Medium for Chemistry,” Chemical and Engineering News, 26 , Dec. 23, pp. 26–39.
Hodes, M., Marrone, P. A., Hong, G. T., Smith, K. A., and Tester, J. W., 2003, “Salt Precipitation and Scale Control in Supercritical Water Oxidation—Part A: Fundamentals and Research,” accepted for publication in J. Supercrit. Fluids.
Marrone, P. A., Hodes, M., Hong, G. T., Smith, K. A., and Tester, J. W., 2003, “Salt Precipitation and Scale Control in Supercritical Water Oxidation—Part B: Commercial/Full-Scale Applications,” accepted for publication in J. Supercrit. Fluids.
Rogak,  S. N., and Teshima,  P., 1999, “Deposition of Sodium Sulfate in a Heated Flow of Supercritical Water,” AIChE J., 45(2), pp. 240–247.
Hodes, M., Smith, K. A., Hurst, W. S., Bowers, Jr., W., Griffith, P., and Sako, K., 2002, “Solubilities and Deposition Rates in Aqueous Sulfate Solutions at Elevated Temperatures and Pressure,” submitted to AIChE J.
Hodes, M., 1998, “Measurements and Modeling of Deposition Rates from Near-Supercritical, Aqueous, Sodium Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate Solutions to a Heated Cylinder,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Hurst,  W. S., Hodes,  M., Bowers,  W. J., Bean,  V. E., Maslar,  J. E., Griffith,  P., and Smith,  K. A., 2002, “Optical Flow Cell and Apparatus for Solubility, Salt Deposition and Raman Spectroscopic Studies in Aqueous Solutions near the Water Critical Point,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 22, pp. 157–166.
Smith,  K. A., Hodes,  M., and Griffith,  P., 2002, “On the Potential for Homogeneous Nucleation of Salt from Aqueous Solution in a Natural Convection Boundary Layer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 124(5), pp. 930–937.
McAdams, W. H., 1954, Heat Transmission, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, New York, Chap. 7.
Morgan, V. T., 1975, “The Overall Convective Heat Transfer From Smooth Circular Cylinders,” Advances in Heat Transfer, T. F. Irvine and J. P. Hartnett, eds., 11 , Academic Press, New York, pp. 199–264.
Lienhard,  J. H., 1973, “On the Commonality of Equations for Natural Convection From Immersed Bodies,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 16, pp. 2121–2123.
Gebhart,  B., and Pera,  L., 1971, “The Nature of Vertical Natural Convection Flows Resulting From the Combined Buoyancy Effects of Thermal and Mass Diffusion,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 14, pp. 2025–2050.
Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., and Flannery, B. P., 1982, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press.
Gallagher, J. S., and Haar, L., 1985, NBS Standard Reference Data Base 10 Steam Tables, National Bureau of Standards in Gaithersberg, MD.
Gallagher, J. S., 2000, “A Model for the Liquid, Vapor and Supercritical Regions of Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Sulfate for Temperatures from 200 to 400°C and Pressures to 30 MPa,” Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on the Properties of Water and Steam, NRC Press, Ottawa.
Anderko,  A., and Pitzer,  K. S., 1993, “Equation of State Representation of Phase-Equilibria and Volumetric Properties of the System NaCl-H2O above 573 K,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, pp. 1657–1680.
Butenhoff,  T. J., Goemans,  M., and Buelow,  S. J., 1996, “Mass Diffusion Coefficients and Thermal Diffusivity in Concentrated NaNO3 Solutions,” J. Phys. Chem., 100, pp. 5982–5992.
Zaytsev, I. D., and Aseyev, G. G., eds., 1992, Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes, CRC Press.
Davis, S., 2001, Theory of Solidification, Cambridge University Press.
Beckermann,  C., and Viskanta,  R., 1993, “Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena during Alloy Solidification,” Appl. Mech. Rev., 46(1), pp. 1–27.
Modell, M., Kuharich, E. F., and Rooney, M. R., 1993, “Supercritical Water Oxidation Process of Organics with Inorganics,” U.S. Patent #5,252,224.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Moving differential control volume used to derive the mass and energy balances at the SLSI
Grahic Jump Location
Measured 1 and predicted mass of salt deposited versus time when the sodium sulfate concentration in the inlet stream is 4 wt%. Includes sensitivity analysis on Hdiss and DAB
Grahic Jump Location
Predicted mass of salt deposited on the heated cylinder versus time when the concentration of sodium sulfate in the inlet stream was 4 wt% extended to steady-state conditions. Includes sensitivity analysis on Hdiss and DAB.
Grahic Jump Location
Measured 1 and predicted mass of salt deposited versus time when the concentration of sodium sulfate in the inlet stream was 4 wt%. Includes sensitivity analysis on TB*, and ϕ.
Grahic Jump Location
Predicted mass of salt deposited on the heated cylinder versus time when the concentration of sodium sulfate in the inlet stream was 4 wt% extended to steady-state conditions. Includes sensitivity analysis on TB*, and ϕ.
Grahic Jump Location
Experimental data and predictions for all of the sodium sulfate deposition experiments. (One curve represents the results for the 2 and 4 wt% inlet concentrations as the results are indistinguishable and the same “envelope boundary” pragmatically bounds the predictions for all the experiments.)
Grahic Jump Location
Experimental data and baseline predictions for the potassium sulfate deposition experiments
Grahic Jump Location
Idealized boundaries between regions containing various combinations of solid salt, pure water and aqueous salt solution surrounding the heated cylinder
Grahic Jump Location
Driving forces for deposition at the SLSI and in the PSL
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the test section used in the Hodes et al. deposition experiments 12 modeled here
Grahic Jump Location
Photograph of the 5.08 mm (outer) diameter heated cylinder before insertion into the cross flow of a 4 wt% aqueous sodium sulfate solution and upstream, downstream and side views of it after about 15 minutes of exposure. (Flow direction and gravity vector are shown in side view.) [Tb=356°C,P=250 bar,ṁsoln=10.47 g/min.]
Grahic Jump Location
Temperatures, concentrations and principles relevant to the deposition rate calculations plotted on a generic solubility diagram representative of the sodium sulfate-water and potassium sulfate-water systems at a pressure of 250 bar

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In