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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Bubbles, Particles, and Droplets

Experimental Study of Bubble Dynamics on a Micro Heater Induced by Pulse Heating

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. Hong

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14260

N. Ashgriz

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G8

J. Andrews

Wilson Center for Research and Technology, Xerox Corporation, Webster, New York, 14580

J. Heat Transfer 126(2), 259-271 (May 04, 2004) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1650388 History: Received November 08, 2002; Revised November 25, 2003; Online May 04, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

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Avedisian, C. T., 1986, “Bubble Growth in Superheated Liquid Droplets,” in Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, 3 , Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, TX, pp. 130–190; chpt. 8.
Rembe,  C., Wiesche,  S., and Hofer,  E. P., 2000, “Thermal Ink Jet Dynamics: Modeling, Simulation, and Testing,” Microelectron. Reliab., 40, pp. 525–532.
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Allen,  R. R., Meyer,  J. D., and Knight,  W. R., 1985, “Thermodynamics and Hydrodynamics of Thermal Ink Jets,” Hewlett-Packard J., 36, pp. 21–27.
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Zhao,  Z., Gold,  S., and Poulikakos,  D., 2000, “Pressure and Power Generation During Explosive Vaporization on a Thin Film Microheater,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 281–296.
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Figures

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Cross-section of the heater structure (not to scale)
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Print head structure (not to scale)
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Measured currents at (a) 36 V, (b) 40 V, (c) 44 V, and (d) 48 V
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Total resistance, Rtotal, as a function of voltage
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Temperature coefficient of resistance, TCR, as a function of voltage
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Comparison of nucleation temperatures for the cases of constant and variable R and TCR as a function of voltage (Raverage=740.46 Ω and TCRaverage=0.000174°C−1)
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Water temperature near the heater surface at (a) 36 V and (b) 48 V
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Bubble growth and collapse: (a) and (b) nucleation and growth, (c) vapor sheet formation, (d) maximum size, (e) collapse, and (f) rebound.
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Bubble nucleation at 45 V (tp=4.4 μs)
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(a) Effect of pulse widths on the bubble size, and (b) Bubble size versus time at different heating pulses
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Initial liquid temperature effect on bubble growth at (a) Tini=20°C, (b) Tini=30°C, and (c) Tini=40°C
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Bubble size as a function of time at (a) Tamb=20°C, (b) Tamb=30°C, and (c) Tamb=40°C
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Bubble growth and collapse at (a) 36 V and (b) 48 V: (i) Nucleation, (ii) vapor sheet formation, (iii) maximum size, (iv) collapse, and (v) rebound.
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Time to reach the phase of nucleation, vapor sheet formation, maximum size, and collapse as a function of input voltages
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Temperatures at the phase of nucleation and vapor sheet formation as a function of input voltage
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Bubble volume in time at (a) 36 V, (b) 40 V, (c) 44 V, and (d) 48 V. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical model.
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(a) Power generated at different voltages as a function of time; and (b) Energy generated from the heater as a function of input voltage.
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Pressure impulse, P, and work, W, done by the bubble as a function of input voltages
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Bubble dimensions, velocities and accelerations for (a) length (x direction), (b) width (z direction), and (c) height (y direction) as a function of time at 40 V
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The effect of input voltage on the (a) velocity and (b) acceleration near the collapsing point

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