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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat and Mass Transfer

Modulated Air Layer Heat and Moisture Transport by Ventilation and Diffusion From Clothing With Open Aperture

[+] Author and Article Information
Nesreen Ghaddar, Jihad Harathani

American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Kamel Ghali

Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

J. Heat Transfer 127(3), 287-297 (Mar 24, 2005) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1857949 History: Received January 09, 2004; Revised December 13, 2004; Online March 24, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Ghali,  K., Ghaddar,  N., and Jones,  B., 2002, “Empirical Evaluation of Convective Heat and Moisture Transport Coefficients in Porous Cotton Medium,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 124(3), pp. 530–537.
Lotens, W., 1993, “Heat Transfer From Humans Wearing Clothing,” Doctoral Thesis, TNO Institute for Perception, Soesterberg, The Netherlands, 34–37.
Danielsson, U., 1993, “Convection Coefficients in Clothing Air Layers,” PhD thesis, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
McCullough,  E. A., Jones,  B. W., and Jones,  B. W., 1989, “A Database for Determining the Evaporative Resistance of Clothing,” ASHRAE Trans., 95, pp. 316–328.
Havenith,  G., Heus,  R., and Lotens,  W. A., 1990, “Resultant Clothing Insulation: a Function of Body Movement, Posture, Wind Clothing Fit and Ensemble Thickness,” Ergonomics, 33(1), pp. 67–84.
Havenith,  G., Heus,  R., and Lotens,  W. A., 1990, “Clothing Ventilation, Vapor Resistance and Permeability Index: Changes Due to Posture, Movement, and Wind,” Ergonomics, 33(8), pp. 989–1005.
Jones, B. W., Ito, M., and McCullough, E. A., 1990, “Transient Thermal Response Systems,” Proceedings International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Austin, TX, pp. 66–67.
Jones, B. W., and McCullough, E. A., 1985, “Computer Modeling for Estimation of Clothing Insulation,” Proceedings of CLIMA 2000, World Congress on Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4 , pp. 1–5.
Li,  Y., and Holcombe,  B. V., 1998, “Mathematical Simulation of Heat and Moisture Transfer in a Human-Clothing-Environment System,” Text. Res. J., 68(6), pp. 389–397.
Ghali,  K., Ghaddar,  N., and Jones,  B., 2002, “Multi-Layer Three-Node Model of Convective Transport Within Cotton Fibrous Medium,” J. Porous Media, 5(1), pp. 17–31.
Ghali,  K., Ghaddar,  N., and Jones,  B., 2002, “Modeling of Heat and Moisture Transport by Periodic Ventilation of Thin Cotton Fibrous Media,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45, pp. 3703–3714.
Ghaddar,  N., Ghali,  K., and Jones,  B., 2003, “Integrated Human-Clothing System Model for Estimating the Effect of Walking on Clothing Insulation,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 42(6), pp. 605–619.
Gagge, A. P., Fobelets, A., and Berglund, L. G., 1986, “A Standard Predictive Index of Human Response to the Thermal Environment,” ASHRAE Trans. 2B, PO-86-14.
Ghali, K., Ghaddar, N., and Harathani, J., 2004, “Two Dimensional Clothing Ventilation Model for a Walking Human,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications. Paper No. ICEA-TF1-03, Beirut-Lebanon, May 31–June 4, 2004.
Womersley,  J. R., 1955, “Oscillatory Motion of Viscous Liquid in Thin-Walled Elastic Tube: I. The Linear Approximation for Long Waves,” Philos. Mag., 46, pp. 199–221.
Womersley, J. R., 1957, “An Elastic Tube Theory of Pulse Transmission and Oscillatory Flow in Mammalian Arteries,” Aeronautical Research Laboratory. WADC Technical Report TR 56-614.
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the physical domain of (a) the fabric-air layer-skin system; (b) the fabric model, and (c) the variation in time of the ratio of air layer thickness to the air layer mean thickness
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Schematic representation of the air mass balance on element of thickness dx
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Computational grid system
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The variation with time of the internal modulated air layer parallel flow rate and normal mass flux (a) ṁax and (b) ṁay, respectively, at x=0.2 L, 0.4 L, 0.6 L, 0.8 L and L using the presented Womersley model for the parallel flow at the frequency of 25 rpm, CD=1,Ym=38.1 mm, and ΔY=6.35 mm
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The variation of the Womersley and Poisueille models time-averaged mass flow rates with x at three different ventilation frequencies of 15, 25, and 35 rpm for CD=1,Ym=38.1 mm, and ΔY=6.35 mm
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The fabric space-averaged regain as a function of time for the both the Womersley and Poiseuille 2D models of parallel flow (open aperture), and the 1D normal flow model (closed aperture)
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The variation in time of (a) the internal air layer temperature at x=0.4, 0.6 L, 0.8 L and L, at f=25 rpm and CD=1, and for the 1D normal flow model at f=25 rpm, (b) the 2D space-averaged internal air layer temperature over the length L and 1D normal flow model f=25 rpm, and (c) the 2D space-averaged humidity ratios of the 2D and 1D models at f=25 rpm
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The Womersley-based 2D model time-averaged (a) sensible and (b) latent heat losses from the skin in Watt/m2 as a function of x at three different ventilation frequencies of 15, 25, and 35 rpm for CD=1,Ym=38.1 mm and ΔY=6.35 mm. The Poisueille-based 2D model at f=25 rpm is also shown.
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The parallel Womersley flow model time-averaged (a) sensible and (b) latent heat losses from the skin in W/m2 as a function of x
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The predicted fabric regain using ventilation model for the conditions of Ghali et al. experiment 1 at various air flow rates from zero to 0.05242 kg/m2 ⋅s. On the same graph, the diffusion model regain in still air is shown.

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