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TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

A Review of Shaped Hole Turbine Film-Cooling Technology

[+] Author and Article Information
Ronald S. Bunker

General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NYA Review of Shaped Hole Turbine Film-Cooling Technology

J. Heat Transfer 127(4), 441-453 (Mar 30, 2005) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1860562 History: Received January 04, 2004; Revised May 15, 2004; Online March 30, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Kercher, D. M., 2000, “A Bibliography of Film Cooling” (personal communication, unpublished).
Goldstein, R. J., 1971, “Film Cooling,” Advances in Heat Transfer, Academic Press, San Diego, Vol. 7, pp. 321–379.
Goldstein,  R. J., Eckert,  E. R. G., and Burggraf,  F., 1974, “Effects of Hole Geometry and Density on Three-Dimensional Film Cooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 17, pp. 595–607.
Lopez-Peña, F., and Arts, T., 1993, “On the Development of a Film Cooling Layer,” Heat Transfer and Cooling in Gas Turbines, AGARD-CP-527, pp. 36-1 thru 36-12.
Thole, K., Gritsch, M., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 1996, “Flowfield Measurements for Film Cooling Holes With Expanded Exits,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Birmingham, UK, Paper 96-GT-174.
Haven, B. A., Yamagata, D. K., Kurosaka, M., Yamawaki, S., and Maya, T., 1997, “Anti-Kidney Pair of Vortices in Shaped Holes and Their Influence on Film Cooling Effectiveness,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Orlando, Paper 97-GT-45.
Wilfert,  G., and Fottner,  L., 1996, “The Aerodynamic Mixing Effect of Discrete Cooling Jets With Mainstream Flow on a Highly Loaded Turbine Blade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118, pp. 468–478.
Ganzert, W., Hildebrandt, T., and Fottner, L., 2000, “Systematic Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Aerothermodynamics of a Film Cooled Turbine Cascade With Variation of the Cooling Hole Shape, Part 1, Experimental Approach,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Munich, Paper 2000-GT-295.
Hartsel, J. E., 1972, “Prediction of Effects of Mass Transfer Cooling on the Blade Row Efficiency of Turbine Airfoils,” AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, San Diego, Jan. 17–19, AIAA Paper 72-11.
Day, C. R. B., Oldfield, M. L. G., Lock, G. D., and Dancer, S. N., 1998, “Efficiency Measurements of an Annular Nozzle Guide Vane Cascade With Different Film Cooling Geometries,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Stockholm, Paper 98-GT-538.
Gritsch, M., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 1997, “Adiabatic Wall Effectiveness Measurements of Film-Cooling Holes With Expanded Exits,” IGTI Conference, Orlando, Paper 97-GT-164.
Yu, Y., Yen, C.-H., Shih, T. I.-P., Chyu, M. K., and Gogineni, S., 1999, “Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient Distributions Around Diffusion Shaped Holes,” IGTI Conference, Indianapolis, Paper 99-GT-34.
Bunker, R. S., 2000, “Effect of Partial Coating Blockage on Film Cooling Effectiveness,” IGTI Conference, Munich, Paper 2000-GT-244.
Yuen, C. H. N., Martinez-Botas, R. F., and Whitelaw, J. H., 2001, “Film Cooling Effectiveness Downstream of Compound and Fan-Shaped Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, New Orleans, Paper 2001-GT-0131.
Sargison,  J. E., Guo,  S. M., Oldfield,  M. L. G., and Rawlinson,  A. J., 2001, “The Variation of Heat Transfer Coefficient, Adiabatic Effectiveness, and Aerodynamic Loss With Film Cooling Hole Shape,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 934, pp. 361–368.
Schmidt, D. L., Sen, B., and Bogard, D. G., 1994, “Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Adiabatic Effectiveness,” IGTI Turbo Expo, The Hague, Netherlands, Paper 94-GT-312.
Chen,  P. H., Hung,  M. S., and Ding,  P. P., 2001, “Film Cooling Performance on Curved Walls With Compound Angle Hole Configuration,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 934, pp. 353–360.
Reiss, H., and Boelcs, A., 1999, “Experimental Study of Showerhead Cooling on a Cylinder Comparing Several Configurations Using Cylindrical and Shaped Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, Paper 99-GT-123.
Dittmar, J., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 2002, “Assessment of Various Film Cooling Configurations Including Shaped and Compound Angle Holes Based on Large Scale Experiments,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, Paper GT-2002-30176.
McGrath, E. L., Leylek, J. H., and Buck, F. A., 2002, “Film Cooling on a Modern HP Turbine Blade Part IV: Compound Angle Shaped Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, Paper GT-2002-30521.
Ferguson, J. D., Leylek, J. H., and Buck, F. A., 2002, “Film Cooling on a Modern HP Turbine Blade Part III: Axial Shaped Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, Paper GT-2002-30522.
Makki, Y. H., and Jakubowski, G. S., 1986, “An Experimental Study of Film Cooling From Diffused Trapezoidal Shaped Holes,” AIAA/ASME 4th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston.
Gritsch, M., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 1998, “Heat Transfer Coefficients Measurements of Film-Cooling Holes With Expanded Exits,” IGTI Conference, Stockholm, Paper 98-GT-28.
Sen, B., Schmidt, D. L., and Bogard, D. G., 1994, “Film Cooling With Compound Angle Holes: Heat Transfer,” IGTI Turbo Expo, The Hague, Netherlands, Paper 94-GT-311.
Abuaf,  N., Bunker,  R., and Lee,  C. P., 1997, “Heat Transfer and Film Cooling Effectiveness in a Linear Airfoil Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 302–309.
Gritsch,  M., Saumweber,  C., Schulz,  A., Wittig,  S., and Sharp,  E., 2000, “Ef-fect of Internal Coolant Crossflow Orientation on the Discharge Coefficient of Shaped Film Cooling Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122, pp. 146–152.
Bunker,  R. S., and Bailey,  J. C., 2001, “Film Cooling Discharge Coefficient Measurements in a Turbulated Passage With Internal Cross Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 774–780.
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Kohli, A., and Thole, K. A., 1998, “Entrance Effects on Diffused Film Cooling Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Stockholm, Paper 98-GT-402.
Saumweber, C., Schulz, A., and Wittig, S., 2002, “Free-Stream Turbulence Effects on Film Cooling With Shaped Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, Paper GT-2002-30170.
Takeishi,  K. I., and Aoki,  S., 2001, “Contribution of Heat Transfer to Turbine Blades and Vanes for High Temperature Industrial Gas Turbines: Part 1, Film Cooling,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 934, pp. 305–312.
Moser, S., Ivanisin, M., Woisetschlaeger, J., and Jericha, H., 2000, “Novel Blade Cooling Engineering Solution,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Munich, Paper 2000-GT-242.
Sargison, J. E., Guo, S. M., Oldfield, M. L. G., Lock, G. D., and Rawlinson, A. J., 2001, “A Converging Slot-Hole Film Cooling Geometry Part 1: Low-Speed Flat Plate Heat Transfer and Loss,” IGTI Turbo Expo, New Orleans, Paper 2001-GT-0126.
Sargison, J. E., Guo, S. M., Oldfield, M. L. G., Lock, G. D., and Rawlinson, A. J., 2001, “A Converging Slot-Hole Film Cooling Geometry Part 2: Transonic Nozzle Guide Vane Heat Transfer and Loss,” IGTI Turbo Expo, New Orleans, Paper 2001-GT-0127.
Fric, T. F., and Campbell, R. P., 2002, “Method for Improving the Cooling Effectiveness of a Gaseous Coolant Stream Which Flows Through a Substrate, and Related Articles of Manufacture,” US Patent No. 6,383,602.
Bunker, R. S., 2002, “Film Cooling Effectiveness Due to Discrete Holes Within a Transverse Surface Slot,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, Paper GT-2002-30178.
Nasir, H., Acharya, S., and Ekkad, S., 2001, “Film Cooling From a Single Row of Cylindrical Angled Holes With Triangular Tabs Having Different Orientations,” IGTI Turbo Expo, New Orleans, Paper 2001-GT-0124.
Kohli, A., and Bogard, D. G., 1999, “Effects of Hole Shape on Film Cooling With Large Angle Injection,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, Indiana, Paper 99-GT-165.
Jackson, D. J., Lee, K. L., Ligrani, P. M., Johnson, P. D., and Soechting, F. O., 1999, “Transonic Aerodynamic Losses Due to Turbine Airfoil Suction Surface Film Cooling,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, Paper 99-GT-260.
Hildebrandt, T., Ganzert, W., and Fottner, L., 2000, “Systematic Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Aerothermodynamics of a Film Cooled Turbine Cascade With Variation of the Cooling Hole Shape, Part 2, Numerical Approach,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Munich, Paper 2000-GT-298.
Barthet,  S., and Bario,  F., 2001, “Experimental Investigation of Film Cooling Flow Induced by Shaped Holes,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 34, pp. 313–320.
Saumweber, C., and Schulz, A., 2003, “Interaction of Film Cooling Rows: Effects of Hole Geometry and Row Spacing on the Cooling Performance Downstream of the Second Row of Holes,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Atlanta, Paper GT2003-38195.
Bohn, D., Ren, J., and Kusterer, K., 2003, “Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis for Film Cooling Configurations With Different Hole Geometries,” IGTI Turbo Expo, Atlanta, Paper GT2003-38369.

Figures

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Modern HPT film cooled blade and vane
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Catalogue (partial) of shaped film literature 383940414243
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Defined geometries for four types of shaped film holes
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Centerline effectiveness downstream of single round or shaped hole (reprinted from 3 with permission from Elsevier)
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Centerline effectiveness as a function of blowing rate; row of holes three-dimensional spacing (reprinted from 3 with permission from Elsevier)
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Turbulence intensity for hole centerline plane (top) and transverse location X/D=4 plane (bottom); reproduced from 5
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Shaped film hole LIF images at transverse planes (reproduced from 6)
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Oil and dye surface traces for round and shaped film holes (reproduced from 7 and 8, respectively)
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Oil and dye surface traces for compound angle, shaped film holes (reproduced from 8)
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Summary of heat transfer coefficient enhancements with shaped film holes
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Effect of freestream turbulence intensity (reproduced from 31)
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Cascade suction side film effectiveness with shaped film (present test surface photo)
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Proposed alternative film holes shapes
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Ideal tangential slot film cooling
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Schematic of slot-like film cooling regions in turbine

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