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RESEARCH PAPERS: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Modeling and Experiments of Laser Cladding With Droplet Injection

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Choi

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409, USAjchoi@umr.edu

L. Han, Y. Hua

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409, USA

J. Heat Transfer 127(9), 978-986 (Mar 22, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2005273 History: Received September 04, 2004; Revised March 22, 2005

Laser aided Directed Material Deposition (DMD) is an additive manufacturing process based on laser cladding. A full understanding of laser cladding is essential in order to achieve a steady state and robust DMD process. A two dimensional mathematical model of laser cladding with droplet injection was developed to understand the influence of fluid flow on the mixing, dilution depth, and deposition dimension, while incorporating melting, solidification, and evaporation phenomena. The fluid flow in the melt pool that is driven by thermal capillary convection and an energy balance at the liquid–vapor and the solid–liquid interface was investigated and the impact of the droplets on the melt pool shape and ripple was also studied. Dynamic motion, development of melt pool and the formation of cladding layer were simulated. The simulated results for average surface roughness were compared with the experimental data and showed a comparable trend.

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic sketch of laser cladding process

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Figure 2

Moving laser beam without droplet injection (moving velocity of laser beam, 12.7mm∕s, laser power, 600 W, beam diameter, 0.7 mm, and absorption coefficient, 0.5); (a) temperature distribution; (b) velocity field; and (c) melt pool size

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Figure 3

Influences of droplet injection on melt pool (diameter of droplet, 100μm, velocity of droplet −0.2m∕s, interval between droplets, 3 ms, laser beam power, 1000 W, and absorption coefficient, 0.3), (a) t=82ms, (b) t=83ms, (c) t=84ms, (d) t=85ms, (e) t=86ms, and (e) t=87ms

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Figure 4

Surface roughness of cladding layer, (a) surface roughness profile after t=160ms (cell size (X), 0.02 mm), (b) area enlarged (average height, ∼0.16mm)

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Figure 5

Typical single-pass laser clad (nominal laser power, 600 W; Gaussian mode; powder mass flow rate, 8g∕min), (a) cross-sectioned parallel to the direction of deposition, (b) cross-sectioned perpendicular to the direction of deposition

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Figure 6

Measured surface roughness (a) as a function of effective laser power assuming 40% absorption; (b) as a function of powder mass flow rate

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Figure 7

Measured average clad height (μm) (a) as a function of effective laser power assuming 40% absorption, (b) as a function of powder mass flow rate

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Figure 8

Measured average dilution depth (μm) (a) as a function of effective laser power assuming 40% absorption; (b) as a function of powder mass flow rate

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Figure 9

Comparison between experimental and simulated results of average surface roughness (nominal powder mass feed rate (ṁn)=6.0g∕min)

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