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RESEARCH PAPERS: Forced Convection

# Rheological Characteristics and Turbulent Friction Drag and Heat Transfer Reductions of a Very Dilute Cationic Surfactant Solution

[+] Author and Article Information
Jinjia Wei

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049, China

Yasuo Kawaguchi1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japanyasuo@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp

Bo Yu

Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102249, People’s Republic of China

Ziping Feng

Daikin Air Conditioning Engineering Laboratory Ltd., Sakai, 591-8511, Japan

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 128(10), 977-983 (Feb 24, 2006) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2345422 History: Received August 31, 2004; Revised February 24, 2006

## Abstract

Turbulent friction drag and heat transfer reductions and rheological characteristics of a very dilute cationic surfactant solution, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC)/sodium salicylate $(NaSal)$ aqueous solution, were experimentally investigated at various temperatures. It was found that there existed a critical temperature above which drag and heat transfer reductions disappeared and shear viscosities rapidly dropped to that of water. It was surmised that drag and heat transfer reductions had a certain relationship with rheological characteristics and a rheological characterization of $CTAC∕NaSal$ surfactant solutions was performed to clarify this relationship. The effects of Reynolds number and fluid temperature and concentration on drag and heat transfer reductions were qualitatively explained by analyzing the measured shear viscosity data at different shear rates and solution temperatures and concentrations. The Giesekus model was found to fit the measured shear viscosities reasonably well for different temperatures and concentrations of the surfactant solution and the model parameter values obtained by fitting were correlated with temperature at certain solution concentrations. From the correlation results, the temperature effect on viscoelasticity of surfactant solutions was analyzed to relate the rheological characteristics with drag and heat transfer reduction phenomena.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Schematic diagram of two-dimensional water channel: (1) reservoir tank; (2) pump; (3) filter; (4) contraction; (5) honeycomb; (6) 2D channel; (7) heater plate; (8) pressure tap; (9) pressure transducer; (10) diffuser; (11) flow meter; (12) stirrer; (13) cooling coil; (14) heater; (15) heater regulator; (16) thermocouple

Figure 2

Schematics of flow geometries of ARES rheometers

Figure 3

Friction factors versus Reynolds number in a two-dimensional channel

Figure 11

Comparison of the measured shear viscosities with the prediction of the Giesekus model

Figure 10

Relaxation time λ versus temperature T

Figure 9

Zero-shear viscosity η0 versus temperature T

Figure 8

Least squares fitting result of the measured shear viscosities with the Giesekus model

Figure 7

Solution temperature versus shear rate at the same shear viscosity

Figure 6

Shear viscosities versus solution temperature (a)Cm=50ppm, (b)Cm=75ppm, (c)Cm=100ppm, and (d)Cm=200ppm

Figure 4

Colburn j factors versus Reynolds number in a two-dimensional channel

Figure 5

Inlet fluid temperature dependence of friction factors and Colburn j factors

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