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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Metal Transfer and Arc Plasma in Gas Metal Arc Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Hu1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409

H. L. Tsai2

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409tsai@umr.edu

1

Present address: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT 06604.

2

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 129(8), 1025-1035 (Oct 12, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2724847 History: Received January 24, 2006; Revised October 12, 2006

This article analyzes the transient complex heat transfer and fluid flow in molten metal and arc plasma during the gas metal arc welding process. The model predicts the formation, growth, detachment, and transfer of droplets from the tip of a continuously fed electrode under the influences of several competing forces including gravity, electromagnetic force, arc pressure, plasma shear stress, and surface tension. Simulations were conducted for five different current levels to study the effects of current on the distributions of temperature, velocity, pressure, and current density in the droplet and/or the arc plasma. Agreement between the simulated results and published experimental data was obtained.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

A schematic representation of a GMAW system including the electrode, the arc, and the weld pool (not to scale)

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Figure 2

Temperature-dependant material properties of argon and the volume radiation heat loss taken from (10)

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Figure 3

Temperature distributions in the metal domain for I=200A

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Figure 4

Velocity distributions in the metal domain for I=200A

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Figure 5

Arc plasma temperature distributions for (a)I=200A, (b)I=240A, (c)I=280A

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Figure 6

Arc plasma velocity distributions for (a)I=200A, (b)I=240A, (c)I=280A

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Figure 7

Arc pressure distributions for (a)I=200A, (b)I=240A, (c)I=280A

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Figure 8

Comparison of experimental results (the first row) and computational results (the second row) for droplets at the moment before detachment

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Figure 9

Current density distributions for (a)I=200A, (b)I=240A, (c)I=280A

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Figure 10

Computational droplet positions and axial velocities compared with the experimental results at different currents. (a) Droplet flight trajectories; (b) axial droplet velocities.

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