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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

High Performance and Subambient Silicon Microchannel Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
E. G. Colgan

 IBM Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598ecolgan@us.ibm.com

B. Furman, M. Gaynes, N. LaBianca, J. H. Magerlein, R. Polastre

 IBM Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598

R. Bezama, K. Marston

 IBM East Fishkill, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533

R. Schmidt

 IBM Poughkeepsie, 2455 South Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601

J. Heat Transfer 129(8), 1046-1051 (Oct 17, 2006) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2724850 History: Received April 26, 2006; Revised October 17, 2006

High performance single-phase Si microchannel coolers have been designed and characterized in single chip modules in a laboratory environment using either water at 22°C or a fluorinated fluid at temperatures between 20 and 40°C as the coolant. Compared to our previous work, key performance improvements were achieved through reduced channel pitch (from 75 to 60 microns), thinned channel bases (from 425 to 200 microns of Si), improved thermal interface materials, and a thinned thermal test chip (from 725 to 400 microns of Si). With multiple heat exchanger zones and 60 micron pitch microchannels with a water flow rate of 1.25lpm, an average unit thermal resistance of 15.9Cmm2W between the chip surface and the inlet cooling water was demonstrated for a Si microchannel cooler attached to a chip with Ag epoxy. Replacing the Ag epoxy layer with an In solder layer reduced the unit thermal resistance to 12.0Cmm2W. Using a fluorinated fluid with an inlet temperature of 30°C and 60 micron pitch microchannels with an Ag epoxy thermal interface layer, the average unit thermal resistance was 25.6Cmm2W. This fell to 22.6Cmm2W with an In thermal interface layer. Cooling >500Wcm2 was demonstrated with water. Using a fluorinated fluid with an inlet temperature of 30°C, a chip with a power density of 270Wcm2 was cooled to an average chip surface temperature of 35°C. Results using both water and a fluorinated fluid are presented for a range of Si microchannel designs with a channel pitch from 60 to 100 microns.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

3D rendering of a portion of an assembled microchannel cooler have six heat exchanger zones

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Figure 2

Cross-sectional images of microchannel coolers perpendicular to the fin segments

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Figure 3

Cross-sectional images of complete microchannel single chip module

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Figure 4

Single chip module results using water

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Figure 5

Total thermal resistance versus channel design for a flow of 1.25lpm or a pressure drop of 34.5kPa

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Figure 6

Total thermal resistance versus flow for Ag epoxy and In solder between the microchannel and the chip

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Figure 7

P60/C35 microchannel SCM with In solder attach for various flows and about 1.6kW applied power

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Figure 8

Subambient microchannel SCM test station

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Figure 9

P60/C35 microchannel SCM with Ag epoxy TIM for various inlet temperatures and about 300W applied power

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Figure 10

Single chip module subambient results

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Figure 11

P75/C42 microchannel SCM with Ag epoxy attach and an inlet temperature of −28°C for various power levels

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Figure 12

Total thermal resistance versus inlet temperature for Ag epoxy and In solder as the TIM between the microchannel cooler and the chip

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