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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Heat Transfer Manufacturing

Laser Transmission Welding of a Lap-Joint: Thermal Imaging Observations and three–dimensional Finite Element Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
L. S. Mayboudi1

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6, Canadamayboudi@me.queensu.ca

A. M. Birk

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6, Canadabirk@me.queensu.ca

G. Zak

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6, Canadazak@me.queensu.ca

P. J. Bates

Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Royal Military College, Kingston, Ont., K7K 7B4, Canadabates-p@rmc.ca

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 129(9), 1177-1186 (Jan 23, 2007) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2740307 History: Received July 27, 2006; Revised January 23, 2007

Laser transmission welding (LTW) is a relatively new technology for joining plastic parts. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) transient thermal model of LTW solved with the finite element method. A lap-joint geometry was modeled for unreinforced polyamide (PA) 6 specimens. This thermal model addressed the heating and cooling stages in a laser welding process with a stationary laser beam. This paper compares the temperature distribution of a lap-joint geometry exposed to a stationary diode laser beam, obtained from 3D thermal modeling with thermal imaging observations. It is shown that the thermal model is capable of accurately predicting the temperature distribution when laser beam scattering during transmission through the polymer is included in the model. The weld dimensions obtained from the model have been compared with the experimental data and are in good agreement.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

LTW process for a lap joint

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Figure 2

3D model geometry (dimensions in mm, the thickness of each part is 3mm)

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Figure 3

The meshed model

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Figure 4

Closeup of the meshed model (front view)

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Figure 5

Heat generation profile along the height of the geometry (energy flux: 1w∕mm2)

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Figure 6

Temperature contours at the end of the heating phase (t=10s)

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Figure 7

Temperature contours at the symmetry plane at the end of the heating phase (t=10s, x=0mm)

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Figure 8

Temperature versus time along the Y axis of the geometry (x=0mm, z=12mm, surface A)

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Figure 9

Temperature versus time along the Y axis of the geometry (x=0mm, z=9mm, center of the beam)

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Figure 10

Temperature distribution along the x axis (t=10s, y=3.2mm, z=9mm, center of the beam)

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Figure 11

Temperature distribution along the y axis (t=10s, x=0mm, z=9mm, center of the beam)

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Figure 12

Temperature distribution along the z axis (t=10s, x=0mm, y=3.2mm)

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Figure 13

Temperature versus time obtained from thermal modeling for different distances from the edge (x=0mm, y=3mm, z=12mm, surface A)

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Figure 14

Thermal imaging window at 10s (laser on)

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Figure 15

Thermal imaging window at 20s (laser off)

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Figure 16

Temperature versus time from thermal imaging experiments at different locations along the y axis (x=0mm, z=12mm, surface A)

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Figure 17

Beam profile along the z axis

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Figure 18

Temperature versus time from thermal modeling at different locations along the y axis (x=0mm, z=12mm, surface A)

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Figure 19

A Comparison between the temperature versus time from thermal modeling and thermal imaging at different locations along the y axis (x=0mm, z=12mm, surface A)

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Figure 20

Experimental molten spot dimensions

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Figure 21

Temperature as a function of location along the x and z axes at the center of the beam (t=10s)

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