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Research Papers: Forced Convection

On the Mach Number Invariance of Gas Jets Expanding Into Hot or Cold Environments

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Sambasivam

Technology Group (Global Wires and Longs), Tata Steel Ltd., Jamshedpur 831 001, Indiarsambasivam@tatasteel.com

F. Durst

 FMP Technology GmbH, Am Weichselgarten 34, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany

J. Heat Transfer 132(3), 031701 (Dec 22, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3222735 History: Received September 16, 2008; Revised August 06, 2009; Published December 22, 2009; Online December 22, 2009

Gas jet flows expanding into a space containing the same medium but at a significant temperature difference are of concern in many fields of engineering. One such example is the expansion of supersonic oxygen jets in the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking process. While studying the characteristics of such gas jets, an interesting invariance of the local Mach number with the change in the surrounding temperature was found. The velocity and temperature of the jet at any given location increased with the increasing ambient temperature. However, the local Mach number remained the same for all ambient temperatures. This interesting result was further studied since there is no mention of it in any published literature. The reasons for these characteristics of the jet are analyzed in this paper. It is stressed that this finding is of practical importance and can be used in experimental studies of submerged gas jets expanding into environments with different ambient temperatures.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Mach number invariance of a supersonic oxygen jet expanding into environments of 300 K and 1000 K: (a) axial velocity along the axis of the jet (b) temperature along the axis of the jet, and (c) local Mach number along the axis

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Figure 2

Schematic representation of the geometry and the boundary conditions

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Figure 3

Mach number invariance of a subsonic jet expanding into environments of different temperatures: (a) axial velocity along the axis of the jet, (b) temperature along the axis of the jet, and (c) local Mach number along the axis of the jet

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Figure 4

Comparison of axial velocity profiles of the subsonic jet expanding into surroundings of different temperatures at x/D: (a) 10, (b) 20, (c) 30, and (d) 45

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Figure 5

Comparison of temperature profiles of the subsonic jet expanding into surroundings of different temperatures at x/D: (a) 10, (b) 20, (c) 30, and (d) 45

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Figure 6

Comparison of Mach number profiles of the jet expanding into surroundings of different temperatures at x/D: (a) 10, (b) 20, (c) 30, and (d) 45

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Figure 7

Deviation of Mach number profiles from the mean along the axis of the subsonic jet for different ambient temperatures

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Figure 8

Schematic representation of the structure of a submerged gas jet

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Figure 9

Comparison of effective viscosity profiles of the jet expanding into surroundings of different temperatures at x/D: (a) 10, (b) 20, (c) 30, and (d) 45

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