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Research Papers: Experimental Techniques

Specific Heat Measurement of Three Nanofluids and Development of New Correlations

[+] Author and Article Information
Ravikanth S. Vajjha

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775

Debendra K. Das1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775ffdkd@uaf.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 131(7), 071601 (May 06, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3090813 History: Received May 31, 2008; Revised December 23, 2008; Published May 06, 2009

This paper presents the specific heat measurements of three nanofluids containing aluminum oxide, zinc oxide, and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. The first two are dispersed in a base fluid of 60:40 by mass of ethylene glycol and water (60:40 EG/W) and the last one in deionized water. Measurements were conducted over a temperature range of 315–363 K, which is the normal range of operation of automobile coolants and building heating fluids in cold regions. The nanoparticle volumetric concentrations tested were up to 10%. The measured values were compared with existing equations for the specific heat of nanofluids. A close agreement with the experimental data was not observed. Therefore, a new general correlation was developed for the specific heat as functions of particle volumetric concentration, temperature, and the specific heat of both the particle and the base fluid from the present set of measurements. The correlation predicts the specific heat values of each nanofluid within an average error of about 2.7%.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Development of a curve-fit equation for the specific heat of the base fluid (60:40 EG/W) from ASHRAE (3) data

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Figure 2

Development of curve-fit relation for the density of base fluid (60:40 EG/W) from ASHRAE (3) data

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Figure 3

Experimental setup for specific heat measurement of nanofluids

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Figure 4

Comparison of measured values of the specific heat of two base fluids, 60:40 EG/W and water, with the ASHRAE (3) and Bejan (11) data, respectively

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Figure 5

Measured specific heat values for different concentrations of the Al2O3 nanofluid in a base fluid of 60:40 EG/W

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Figure 6

Variation in volumetric heat capacity of the Al2O3 nanofluid with concentration at three different temperatures

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Figure 7

Variation in the specific heat of SiO2 nanofluid of different volumetric concentrations with temperature

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Figure 8

Variation in the specific heat with temperature for a ZnO nanofluid at different particle volume concentrations

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Figure 9

Comparison of the experimental specific heat values with the Pak and Cho equation (Eq. 3) and the Xuan and Roetzel equation (Eq. 4) for a 7% ZnO nanofluid

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Figure 10

Variation in the specific heat ratio of the Al2O3 nanofluid with temperature for two particle volumetric concentrations

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Figure 11

Comparison of the experimental specific heat values of 2% SiO2, 3% ZnO, and 8% Al2O3 with the present correlation presented as Eq. 12

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