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Research Papers

Direct Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Spray Cooling Through 3D Multiphase Flow Modeling Using Parallel Computing

[+] Author and Article Information
Suranjan Sarkar

Computational Mechanics Laboratory, University of Arkansas, Bell 4190, Fayetteville, AR 72701

R. Panneer Selvam

Computational Mechanics Laboratory, University of Arkansas, Bell 4190, Fayetteville, AR 72701rps@uark.edu

J. Heat Transfer 131(12), 121007 (Oct 15, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3220142 History: Received February 13, 2008; Revised December 13, 2008; Published October 15, 2009

Thermal management issues have become a major bottleneck for further miniaturization and increased power consumption of electronics. Power electronics require more increasing use of high heat flux cooling technologies. Spray cooling with phase change has the advantage of large amount of heat transfer from the hot surface of many power electronics. Spray cooling is a complex phenomenon due to the interaction of liquid, vapor, and phase change at small length scale. A good understanding of the underlying physics and the heat removal process in spray cooling through numerical modeling is needed to design efficient spray cooling system. A computational fluid dynamics based 3D multiphase model for spray cooling is developed here in parallel computing environment using multigrid conjugate gradient solver. This model considers the effect of surface tension, gravity, phase change, and viscosity. The level set method is used to capture the movement of the liquid-vapor interface. The governing equations are solved using finite difference method. Spray cooling is studied using this model, where a vapor bubble is growing in a thin liquid film on a hot surface and a droplet is impacting on the thin film. The symmetry boundary condition considered on four sides of the domain effectively represents a large spray made up of multiple equally sized droplets and bubbles and their interaction. Studies have also been performed for different wall superheats in the absence of vapor bubble to compare the effect of two-phase heat transfer compared to single-phase in spray cooling. The computed interface, temperature, and heat flux distributions at different times over the domain are visualized for better understanding of the heat removal mechanism.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of spray cooling phenomena

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Figure 2

Initial and boundary conditions

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Figure 3

(a) Overall shape of the liquid droplet and vapor bubble and (b) shape of liquid and vapor layers at the first plane in all directions, (c) temperature contour on the first plane above the hot surface (xy plane), and (d) heat flux contour over the hot surface at different times: (i) plot at 0.087 μs (initial condition), (ii) plot at 54.56 μs (droplet impact) and (iii) plot at 77.94 μs (some time after droplet impact when cold liquid spreads over the hot surface—transient conduction)

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Figure 4

Stages in spray cooling and capability of multiphase flow modeling to capture these stages

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Figure 5

Comparison of heat flux in spray cooling: 3D model versus experiment

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