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Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Molecular-Scale Mechanism of Thermal Resistance at the Solid-Liquid Interfaces: Influence of Interaction Parameters Between Solid and Liquid Molecules

[+] Author and Article Information
Daichi Torii1

Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japantorii@microheat.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

Taku Ohara

Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japanohara@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

Kenji Ishida

Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japanishida@microheat.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 132(1), 012402 (Oct 23, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3211856 History: Received June 09, 2008; Revised June 23, 2009; Published October 23, 2009

The solid-liquid interfacial thermal resistance is getting more and more important as various solid-liquid systems are utilized in nanoscale, such as micro electro-mechanical systems/nano electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) with liquids and nanoparticle suspension in liquids. The present paper deals with the transport of thermal energy through the solid-liquid interfaces, and the goal is to find a molecular-scale mechanism that determines the macroscopic characteristics of the transport phenomena. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for systems of a liquid film confined between atomistic solid walls. The two solid walls have different temperatures to generate a steady thermal energy flux in the system, which is the element of macroscopic heat conduction flux. Three kinds of liquid molecules and three kinds of solid walls are examined, and the thermal energy flux is measured at the control surfaces in the liquid film and at the solid-liquid interfaces. The concept of boundary thermal resistance is extended, and it is defined for each degree of freedom of translational motion of the molecules. It is found that the interaction strength between solid and liquid molecules uniformly affects all boundary thermal resistances defined for each degree of freedom; the weaker interaction increases all the resistances at the same rate and vice versa. The boundary thermal resistances also increase when the solid and liquid molecules are incommensurate, but the incommensurability has a greater influence on the boundary thermal resistances corresponding to the molecular motion parallel to the interface than that for the normal component. From these findings it is confirmed that the thermal resistance for the components parallel to the interface is associated with the molecular-scale corrugation of the surface of the solid wall, and that the thermal resistance for the component normal to the interface is governed by the number density of the solid molecules that are in contact with the liquid.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Simulation system for the energy transfer through the solid-liquid interfaces

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Figure 2

The number density distribution of liquid molecules (Case 1); (a) the case with solid wall A over the whole range of liquid film (top panel) and (b) the comparison among cases with walls A–C in the vicinity of the left solid-liquid interface (bottom panel)

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Figure 3

The distribution of temperature in the liquid film and the solid walls (Case 1) in the case with solid wall A (top panel) and C (bottom panel)

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Figure 4

Contributions of each degree of freedom of molecular motion to the total energy flux observed in the liquid film and at the solid-liquid interfaces (Case 1) with solid wall A (top panel) and C (bottom panel). “1st term” and “2nd term” correspond to those in the right side of Eq. 1.

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Figure 5

The thermal boundary resistance at the solid-liquid interface (Case 1); (a) the average temperature jump versus the total energy flux (top panel) and (b) the temperature jump versus the energy flux for each degree of freedom (bottom panel)

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Figure 6

The number density distribution of liquid molecules (Case 2); (a) the case with solid wall A over the whole range of liquid film (top panel) and (b) the comparison among cases with walls A–C in the vicinity of the left solid-liquid interface (bottom panel)

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Figure 7

The number density distribution of liquid molecules (Case 3); (a) the case with solid wall A over the whole range of liquid film (top panel) and (b) the comparison among cases with walls A–C in the vicinity of the left solid-liquid interface (bottom panel)

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Figure 8

The distribution of temperature in the liquid film and the solid walls (Case 2) in the case with solid wall A (top panel) and C (bottom panel)

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Figure 9

The distribution of temperature in the liquid film and the solid walls (Case 3) in the case with solid wall A (top panel) and C (bottom panel)

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Figure 10

Contributions of each degree of freedom of molecular motion to the total energy flux observed in the liquid film and at the solid-liquid interfaces (Case 2) with solid wall A (top panel) and C (bottom panel). “1st term” and “2nd term” correspond to those in the right side of Eq. 1.

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Figure 11

Contributions of each degree of freedom of molecular motion to the total energy flux observed in the liquid film and at the solid-liquid interfaces (Case 3) with solid wall A (top panel) and C (bottom panel). “1st term” and “2nd term” correspond to those in the right side of Eq. 1.

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Figure 12

The boundary thermal resistance; the average temperature jump versus the total energy flux for Cases 1–3

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Figure 13

The boundary thermal resistance; the temperature jump versus the energy flux for each degree of freedom for Case 3

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