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Research Papers

Thermal Characterization of Interlayer Microfluidic Cooling of Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits With Nonuniform Heat Flux

[+] Author and Article Information
Yoon Jo Kim

G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332yoonjo.kim@me.gatech.edu

Yogendra K. Joshi, Andrei G. Fedorov

G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

Young-Joon Lee, Sung-Kyu Lim

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Heat Transfer 132(4), 041009 (Feb 19, 2010) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000885 History: Received February 02, 2009; Revised September 25, 2009; Published February 19, 2010; Online February 19, 2010

It is now widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) system integration is a key enabling technology to achieve the performance needs of future microprocessor integrated circuits (ICs). To provide modular thermal management in 3D-stacked ICs, the interlayer microfluidic cooling scheme is adopted and analyzed in this study focusing on a single cooling layer performance. The effects of cooling mode (single-phase versus phase-change) and stack/layer geometry on thermal management performance are quantitatively analyzed, and implications on the through-silicon-via scaling and electrical interconnect congestion are discussed. Also, the thermal and hydraulic performance of several two-phase refrigerants is discussed in comparison with single-phase cooling. The results show that the large internal pressure and the pumping pressure drop are significant limiting factors, along with significant mass flow rate maldistribution due to the presence of hot-spots. Nevertheless, two-phase cooling using R123 and R245ca refrigerants yields superior performance to single-phase cooling for the hot-spot fluxes approaching 300W/cm2. In general, a hybrid cooling scheme with a dedicated approach to the hot-spot thermal management should greatly improve the two-phase cooling system performance and reliability by enabling a cooling-load-matched thermal design and by suppressing the mass flow rate maldistribution within the cooling layer.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Power map: Intel Core 2 Duo processor—Penryn

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Figure 2

3D-stacked ICs integrated with microfluidic channels for thermal management

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Figure 3

Cross-sectional grids for thermal analysis of the 3D-stacked IC integrated with microfluidic liquid cooling channels

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Figure 4

Comparisons of calculated (a) pressure drop, (b) wall temperature distribution, and (c) local wall temperatures with the experimental data of Zhang (49) for a microfluidic channel heat sink

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Figure 5

Dual-pass microfluidic channel heat sink

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Figure 6

Wall temperature distributions of the tier 1 with single-phase (a) single-pass microfluidic channel cooling and (b) dual-pass microfluidic channel cooling

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Figure 7

Wall temperature and vapor quality distributions of the tier 1 with two-phase (a and c) single-pass microfluidic channel cooling and (b and d) dual-pass microfluidic channel cooling using R236ea as a working fluid

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Figure 8

Wall temperature distributions with single-phase dual-pass microfluidic channel cooling

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Figure 9

Mass flow rate distributions for (a) single-phase and (b) two-phase (R123) dual-pass microfluidic channel cooling

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Figure 10

Void fraction distributions of the coolant in the tier 1 with two-phase dual-pass microfluidic channel cooling using (a) water and (b) R134a as working fluids

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Figure 11

Dependences of mass flow rates and maximum heat transfer coefficients on the reduced pressure. (The numbers in the parenthesis are the corresponding reduced pressures of each working fluid.)

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Figure 12

Mass flow rate and vapor quality distributions for two-phase, dual-pass microfluidic channel cooling using water as a working fluid: (a) full power map and (b) 50% reduced power map

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