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Research Papers

Human Eye Response to Thermal Disturbances

[+] Author and Article Information
Maryam Shafahi

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521

Kambiz Vafai1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521vafai@engr.ucr.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 133(1), 011009 (Sep 30, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002360 History: Received March 25, 2010; Revised April 01, 2010; Published September 30, 2010; Online September 30, 2010

Human eye is one of the most sensitive parts of the body when exposed to a thermal heat flux. Since there is no barrier (such as skin) to protect the eye against the absorption of an external thermal wave, the external flux can readily interact with cornea. The modeling of heat transport through the human eye has been the subject of interest for years, but the application of a porous media model in this field is new. In this study, a comprehensive thermal analysis has been performed on the eye. The iris/sclera section of the eye is modeled as a porous medium. The primary sections of the eye, i.e., cornea, anterior chamber, posterior chamber, iris/sclera, lens, and vitreous are considered in our analysis utilizing a two-dimensional finite element simulation. Four different models are utilized to evaluate the eye thermal response to external and internal disturbances. Results are shown in terms of temperature profiles along the pupillary axis. Effects of extreme ambient conditions, blood temperature, blood convection coefficient, ambient temperature, sclera porosity, and perfusion rate on different regions of the eye are investigated. Furthermore, the role of primary thermal transport mechanisms on the eye subject to different conditions is analyzed.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of different primary sections of the eye along the pupillary axis: (a) different regions of the eye along the pupillary axis with a display of special attributes, (b) display of the primary regions within the eyeball, and (c) display of the blood/tissue interaction within Iris/sclera domain

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Figure 2

Comparison of the analyzed models with Lagendijk’s experimental data (6); ham=20 W/m2 K and Tam=25°C

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Figure 3

Comparison of the analyzed models with Mapstone’s experimental data (14): ham=10 W/m2 K and E=40 W/m2

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Figure 4

Effect of the blood temperature on the pupillary axis temperature profile for the analyzed models; ham=10 W/m2 K and Tam=25°C

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Figure 5

Effect of blood convection coefficient on the pupillary axis temperature profile for the analyzed models; ham=10 W/m2 K and Tam=25°C

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Figure 6

Effect of the ambient convection coefficient ham on the pupillary axis temperature profile for the analyzed models; Tam:25°C

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Figure 7

Effect of the extreme ambient conditions on the eye thermal response along the pupillary axis: (a) hot ambient conditions Tam=40°C, 50°C, and 60°C; ham=200 W/m2 K and (b) cold ambient condition, Tam=−10°C, 0°C, 10°C; ham=200 W/m2 K

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Figure 8

Display of velocity distribution inside the anterior chamber when exposed to a cold ambient condition

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Figure 9

Effect of the ambient convection coefficient on the velocity distribution within the anterior chamber for models II and IV; Tam=25°C. Model II: (a) ham=50 w/m2 K, (b) ham=200 w/m2 K, (c) ham=500 w/m2 K; model IV: (d) ham=50 w/m2 K, (e) ham=200 w/m2 K, and (f) ham=500 w/m2 K.

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Figure 10

Effect of variations in the iris/sclera characteristics on the eye thermal response along the pupillary axis for Model IV: (a) Effect of variations in tissue porosities and (b) effect of variations in blood perfusion rates; ham=200 W/m2 K and Tam=40°C

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