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Research Papers

Modeling of the Off-Axis High Power Diode Laser Cladding Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Shaoyi Wen, Yung C. Shin

Center for Laser-based Manufacturing, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907

J. Heat Transfer 133(3), 031007 (Nov 16, 2010) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002447 History: Received June 18, 2009; Revised January 11, 2010; Published November 16, 2010; Online November 16, 2010

Off-axis high power diode laser (HPDL) cladding is commonly used for surface quality enhancement such as coating, part repairing, etc. Although some laser cladding models are available in literature, little has been reported on the modeling of powder flow and molten pool for a rectangular beam with side powder injection. In this article, a custom-designed flat nozzle delivers the powder material into a distinct molten pool formed by a HPDL with a rectangular beam. A powder model is first presented to reveal the powder flow behavior below the flat nozzle. Key parameters such as nozzle inclination angle, rectangular beam profile, shielding gas flow rates, and powder feed rate are incorporated so that spatial powder density, powder velocity, and temperature distribution are distinctly investigated. Then in order to describe thermal and fluidic behaviors around the molten pool formed by the rectangular beam, a three-dimensional self-consistent cladding model is developed with the incorporation of the distributed powder properties as input. The level set method is adopted to track the complex free surface evolution. Temperature fields and fluid motion in the molten pool area resulting from the profile of rectangular beam are distinctly revealed. The effect of continuous mass addition is also embedded into the governing equations, making the model more accurate. A HPDL cladding with little dilution is formed and the simulated results agree well with the experiment.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic HPDL cladding process

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Figure 2

Schematic 3D calculation domain for powder flow model

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Figure 3

Nonspherical (satelliting) particles

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Figure 4

Off-axis HPDL powder flow with temperature profile, laser power 2400 W, beam spot 12×0.5 mm2, stellite 6 powder flow rate 35 g/min, shielding gas (argon) flow rate 0.8 SCFM, and carrier gas (argon) flow rate 10 SCFH

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Figure 5

Comparison between predicted and experimental (a) vertical velocity, (b) horizontal velocity across width of jet with powder feedrate 35 g/min, (c) vertical velocity, and (d) horizontal velocity transverse to nozzle with powder feedrate 25 g/min. All measured at 6 mm above laser spot, carrier gas 5 SCFH, shielding gas 1.6 SCFM, and nozzle angle 41 deg from horizontal plane.

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Figure 6

Sequential 3D off-axis HPDL deposition profile and temperature distribution with cross sections, laser power 2100 W, beam spot 12×0.5 mm2 with 6.35 mm defocus down, stellite 6 powder flow rate 35 g/min, and scanning speed 3.33 mm/s

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Figure 7

Sequential fluid motion velocity fields in the molten pool in cross sections along the laser scanning direction, laser power 2100 W, beam spot 12×0.5 mm2 with 6.35 mm defocus down, Stellite 6 powder flow rate 35 g/min, and scanning speed 3.33 mm/s, weak vortex is shown by a stream line

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Figure 8

Comparison of track height, width, and profile between simulated and experimental results, laser power 2100 W, beam spot 12×0.5 mm2 with 6.35 mm below focus, stellite 6 powder flow rate 35 g/min, and scanning speed 3.33 mm/s

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Figure 9

Comparison of track height, width, and profile between simulated and experimental results, laser power 2400 W, beam spot 12×0.5 mm2 with 4.00 mm above focus, stellite 6 powder flow rate 35 g/min, and scanning speed 3.33 mm/s

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Figure 10

Comparison of track height, width, and profile between simulated and experimental results, laser power 2400 W, beam spot 12×0.5 mm2 with 2.00 mm below focus, stellite 6 powder flow rate 35 g/min, and scanning speed 3.00 mm/s

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