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Research Papers: Forced Convection

Experimental and Numerical Investigation Into the Heat Transfer Study of Nanofluids in Microchannel

[+] Author and Article Information
Pawan K. Singh

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

P. V. Harikrishna

 Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India

T. Sundararajan, Sarit K. Das

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Indiaskdas@iitm.ac.in

J. Heat Transfer 133(12), 121701 (Oct 06, 2011) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004430 History: Received October 12, 2010; Revised May 29, 2011; Accepted June 13, 2011; Published October 06, 2011; Online October 06, 2011

There are very few detailed experimental investigations about the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids in microchannel. The heat transfer behavior of nanofluids in microchannel is investigated. Two microchannels with hydraulic diameters 218 and 303 μm are fabricated by wet etching process on silicon wafer. An experimental set-up having provision of flow in the channel and temperature measurement along with bottom wall temperature is built-up. Alumina nanofluids with concentrations of 0.25 vol. %, 0.5 vol. %, and 1 vol. % with 45 nm are prepared, stabilized, and characterized by standard methods. The thermal conductivity and viscosity used in the study were measured and analyzed. The base fluids used are water and ethylene glycol. The effect of volume fraction, channel size, particle size, and base fluids are presented and analyzed. An important phenomenon of dispersion is observed. In addition, numerical modeling is carried out by using discrete phase approach. Shear induced particle migration is identified to be the reason of difference for dispersion of particles. The Brownian and thermophoretic forces are responsible for major changes in particle concentration and their movement. Also, it was found that better heat transfer characteristics can be obtained by higher concentration of nanofluids and by low viscous base fluids.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 5

Nu versus RePr. (a) 303 μm; (b) 218 μm.

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Figure 2

Schematics diagram of the experimental set-up

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Figure 3

TEMs figure of 45 nm alumina nanoparticles

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Figure 4

The geometry of the simulated microchannel

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Figure 6

(a) Bottom temperature versus nondimensional axial distance for 303 μm at different Re. (b) Nu versus nondimensional axial distance for 303 μm at different Re.

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Figure 7

Nu versus nondimensional axial distance for 218 μm at different Re

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Figure 1

The cross-sectional and top view of microchannel

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Figure 8

Nu versus nondimensional axial distance for 303 μm at different concentration

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Figure 9

Nu versus nondimensional axial distance for 218 μm at different concentration

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Figure 10

Nu versus nondimensional axial distance for 218 μm at different base fluids (alumina-water at Re = 465 and alumina-EG at Re = 4.4)

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Figure 11

Validation of numerical simulation (a) for water; (b) for nanofluids

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Figure 12

The particle concentration at Outlet

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Figure 13

Bottom temperature with and without different forces acting on particles

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