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Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

Natural Convection of Cu-Gallium Nanofluid in Enclosures

[+] Author and Article Information
Cong Qi, Yurong He1

 School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, Chinaqicongkevin@163.com

Yanwei Hu, Juancheng Yang, Fengchen Li

 School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, Chinaqicongkevin@163.com

Yulong Ding

 Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdomy.ding@leeds.ac.uk

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 133(12), 122504 (Oct 06, 2011) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004431 History: Received November 02, 2010; Revised June 10, 2011; Accepted June 13, 2011; Published October 06, 2011; Online October 06, 2011

In this work, the natural convection heat transfer of Cu-gallium nanofluid in a differentially heated enclosure is investigated. A single-phase model is employed with constant or temperature-dependent properties of the fluid. The results are shown over a wide range of Grashof numbers, volume fractions of nanoparticles, and aspect ratios. The Nusselt number is demonstrated to be sensitive to the aspect ratio. It is found that the Nusselt number is more sensitive to thermal conductivity than viscosity at a low velocity (especially for a low aspect ratio and a low Grashof number), however, it is more sensitive to the viscosity than the thermal conductivity at a high velocity (high aspect ratio and high Grashof number). In addition, the evolution of velocity vectors, isotherms, and Nusselt number for a small aspect ratio is investigated.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of the enclosure

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Figure 2

Comparison between present work and other published data for the temperature distribution at different Y

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Figure 3

Comparison between present work and other published data for the velocity distribution at different Y (a) Y = 2.75 cm; (b) Y = 1.5 cm; (c) Y = 0.25 cm

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Figure 4

Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface using Cu-Ga nanofluid (a) Gr = 3 × 105 , A = 1; (b) Gr = 3 × 106 , A = 1; (c) Gr = 3.75 × 104 , A = 0.5; (d) Gr = 3.75 × 105 , A = 0.5

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Figure 5

Average Nusselt number ratio between nanofluid and pure liquid metal Ga at different Grashof numbers (a) A = 1; (b) A = 0.5

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Figure 6

The evolution with time of velocity vectors (on the left, →0.6 cm/s) and isotherms (on the right) using Cu-Ga nanofluid at Gr = 4.7 × 103 , A = 0.25 and φ = 0.03 (a) t = 30 s; (b) t = 50 s; (c) t = 70 s; (d) t = 150 s; (e) t = 300 s; (f) t = 550 s; (g) t = 700 s; (h) t = 1040 s

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Figure 7

The evolution with time of Nusselt number distribution along the heated surface using Cu-Ga nanofluid at Gr = 4.7 × 103 , A = 0.25 (a) t = 30 s; (b) t = 50 s; (c) t = 70 s; (d) t = 150 s; (e) t = 300 s; (f) t = 550 s; (g) t = 700 s; (h) t = 1040 s

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Figure 8

Average Nusselt number at different time for Gr = 4.7 × 103 and A = 0.25

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Figure 9

Average Nusselt number at different time for Gr = 3.75 × 104 and A = 0.5

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Figure 10

Average Nusselt number at different time for Gr = 3 × 105 and A = 1

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