The main objective of this paper is to solve the inverse convection heat transfer problems with particle swarm optimization method. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of earlier convergence of standard PSO algorithms. The performance of EPSO is tested by some benchmark functions; it is shown that EPSO has a strong antilocal trap capability especially for high dimensional multimodal optimization problems. At last, EPSO is used to identify the unknown boundary heat flux in a channel flow. According to the computational results of four test problems, it is clear that the proposed EPSO algorithm is able to estimate the unknown heat flux accurately even when the input data contain measurement error.