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Technology Reviews

A Review on Critical Heat Flux Enhancement With Nanofluids and Surface Modification

[+] Author and Article Information
Ho Seon Ahn

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea

Moo Hwan Kim1

 Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea e-mail: mhkim@postech.ac.kr

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 134(2), 024001 (Dec 19, 2011) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005065 History: Received March 28, 2011; Revised August 02, 2011; Published December 19, 2011; Online December 19, 2011

Recently, there has been increasing interest in boiling nanofluids and their applications. Among the many articles that have been published, the critical heat flux (CHF) of nanofluids has drawn special attention because of its dramatic enhancement. This article includes recent studies on CHF increasing during the past decade by various researchers for both pool boiling and convective flow boiling applications using nanofluids as the working fluid. It presents a review of nanofluid critical heat flux research with the aim of identifying the reasons for its enhancement and the limitations of nanofluid applications based on various published reports. In addition, further research required to make use of the CHF enhancement caused by nanofluids for practical applications is discussed. Finally, the surface modification method with micro/nanostructures to increase the CHF is introduced and recommended as a useful way.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Thermal conductivity enhancement of Cu and Al2 O3 nanofluids [3]

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Figure 2

Pool boiling characteristic of nanofluids on a smooth and a roughened heater [16]

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Figure 3

Boiling curves at different concentrations of alumina nanofluids [20]

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Figure 4

Boiling curves of NiCr wire (D = 0.4 mm) in silica–water nanofluids [21]

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Figure 5

Boiling curves of pure water and nanofluids, and boiling heat transfer coefficients [26]

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Figure 6

CHF data for a bare heater immersed in a nanofluid, and a nanoparticle-coated heater immersed in pure water [27]

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Figure 7

(a) Macrolayer concept. (b) Macrolayer thickness versus contact angle [32].

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Figure 8

SEM image of the surface after pool boiling 10−1 % nanofluids [30]

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Figure 9

(a) Relationship between CHF phenomena and capillary wicking: (upper) capillary spreading of a liquid drop over thin porous layers with a small apparent contact angle, (lower) capillary rewetting flow toward a dry spot region during bubble growth on porous layers. (b) CHF of pure water versus contact angle on a nanoparticle-deposited surface [38].

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Figure 10

(a) Wetting of a water droplet on a water-boiled copper surface at 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. (b) Wetting of a water droplet on a titania nanoparticle-fouled copper surface at 140 °C, 160 °C, 180 °C, and 200 °C [39].

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Figure 11

CHF phenomenon and comparison between models and experimental data [45]

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Figure 12

Comparison of CHF values for pure water and nanofluid on a clean surface, and pure water on a nanoparticle-coated surface [51]

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Figure 13

SEM photograph of a nanoporous surface that reduced the wall superheat. (a) [73], (b) [74], (c) [75], and (d) [76].

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Figure 14

SEM photographs of Cu particle structures (3D). (a) Enhanced boiling heat transfer [77] and (b) enhanced critical heat flux [47].

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Figure 15

SEM photographs of artificial nanoparticle-coated surfaces. (a) Microstructures, (b) nanostructures, and (c) micro/nanohybrid structures [78].

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Figure 16

SEM photographs of anodic oxidation results on a zirconium alloy with complete wetting [80]

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