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REVIEW ARTICLES

Influence of Force Fields and Flow Patterns on Boiling Heat Transfer Performance: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Paolo Di Marco

LOTHAR, Department of Energy and Systems Engineering,  University of Pisa, Largo L. Lazzarino 1, 56122 Pisa, Italyp.dimarco@ing.unipi.it

J. Heat Transfer 134(3), 030801 (Jan 11, 2012) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005146 History: Received July 26, 2010; Revised May 05, 2011; Accepted September 08, 2011; Published January 11, 2012; Online January 11, 2012

Recent experimentation of boiling in different environments, namely in reduced or enhanced gravity and/or in the presence of electric fields, have shed new light on the comprehension of boiling phenomena and have focused the objectives of future investigation. The recent results achieved by the author and other research groups around the world are reported and discussed in the paper. After a short introduction on some fundamental phenomena and their dependence on force fields, pool, and flow boiling are dealt with. In particular, it is stressed that due to increased coalescence peculiar flow regimes take place in reduced gravity, influencing the heat transfer performance. The application of an electric field may, in some instances, delay or avoid these regime transitions. In boiling at high flowrate, the phenomena are dominated by inertia and thus gravity-independent; however, the threshold at which this occurs has still to be determined.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Boiling roadmap (from Dhir [3], edited)

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Figure 2

Main mechanisms and heat paths in pool boiling

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Figure 3

Bubble detachment diameters in microgravity, scaled with the normal gravity one (from Ref. [8])

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Figure 4

Bubble detachment diameters (from Refs. [28,30])

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Figure 5

The microregion and the incidence angle

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Figure 6

Pool boiling curve on a 0.2 mm wire in normal gravity and sounding rocket experiment, 10− 4 gE (fluid: R113, pressure 1 bar) [42]

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Figure 7

Typical pool boiling flow pattern, in microgravity from [44]; views from side and from below

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Figure 8

Nucleate boiling curve on a flat plate 20 × 20 mm (FC-72) in normal gravity (diamonds) and microgravity (circles), from Ref. [55]

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Figure 9

Interrelationship between boiling flow pattern (seen from back of heater) and wall temperature [49]

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Figure 10

Interrelationship between dry patch extension and wall temperature, from Ref. [58]

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Figure 11

Nucleate boiling curve from Demiray and Kim [36]

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Figure 12

Example of heat flux vs. acceleration graph illustrating the sharp transition in heat flux below a certain gravity level

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Figure 13

Values of K and comparison with available correlations. All the data not countersigned with a reference belong to the present authors. The symbol p represents the system pressure in bar

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Figure 14

Pool boiling curve on a 0.2 mm wire in normal gravity and sounding rocket experiment, 10− 4 gE (fluid: R113, pressure 1 bar) [42]

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Figure 15

Heat transfer coefficient in nucleate boiling on a flat plate 20 × 20 mm (FC-72) with an external electric field, in normal and reduced gravity, from Ref. [56]

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Figure 16

Domains of influence of surface, buoyancy and inertia forces in boiling [76]

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Figure 17

Heat transfer coefficient and flow pattern in flow boiling with variable gravity, nucleate boiling regime, from Ohta [80]

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Figure 18

Heat transfer coefficient and flow pattern in flow boiling with variable gravity, forced convection regime, from Ohta [80]

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Figure 19

Trend of gravity acceleration and wall temperature (top part of the channel) in flow boiling at high flowrate, from Ref. [78]

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Figure 20

Flow pattern in a pipe in flow boiling at 1-g, right, and micro-g, left, D = 4 mm (low mass flux), from Ref. [78]

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Figure 21

Heat transfer coefficient and flow pattern in flow boiling with variable gravity, nucleate boiling regime, from Celata Ref. [78]

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Figure 22

Flow pattern in a pipe in flow boiling at 1-g, right, and micro-g, left, D = 4 mm (high mass flux), from Ref. [78]

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Figure 23

Boiling flow patterns in a vertical square channel, normal gravity (top) and reduced gravity (bottom) from Luciani [82]

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Figure 24

CHF data in normal and reduced gravity, from Zhang [85]

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