Research Papers

Steam Jet Condensation in a Pool: From Fundamental Understanding to Engineering Scale Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Chul-Hwa Song, Seok Cho, Hyung-Seok Kang

Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI),Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Koreachsong@kaeri.re.kr

J. Heat Transfer 134(3), 031004 (Jan 11, 2012) (15 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005144 History: Received July 18, 2010; Revised February 22, 2011; Accepted September 08, 2011; Published January 11, 2012; Online January 11, 2012

The phenomena of direct contact condensation (DCC) of a steam jet submerged in a water pool occur because of the actuation of steam discharging devices in many industrial processes. There are practically two kinds of technical concerns to consider. The first is the thermal mixing in the water pool, and the other is the thermo-hydraulically induced mechanical loads acting on the structures of relevant systems. The two concerns are inter-related and can be well described only if the local behavior of the condensing steam jets and the resultant turbulent jet in a pool are well understood. In this paper, the DCC-related thermofluid dynamic features are discussed focusing on these two concerns. The fundamental characteristics of condensing steam jets are discussed, including the local behavior of condensing jets and the resultant turbulent jet, both of which importantly affect the macroscopic circulation in a pool. Then, a global analysis of thermal mixing in a pool from the viewpoints of the local hot spot and the thermal stratification are discussed with practical application to engineering design in mind.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Safety depressurization and venting system in the APR1400 reactor

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Figure 2

Schematic of thermal mixing induced by the steam jet discharge in a pool (Song [3])

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Figure 3

Flow structure of a condensing steam jet (d = 10.15 mm, G = 600 kg/m2 s, Tp  = 40 °C)

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Figure 4

Condensation regime map of a steam jet from a single-hole nozzle

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Figure 5

Geometric parameters characterizing a condensing steam jet

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Figure 6

Parametric effect on the cavity shapes: (a) Case of high steam mass flux (d = 5 mm) and (b) Case of low steam mass flux (d = 15 mm)

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Figure 7

Axial temperature profiles in steam cavity: (a) d = 20 mm, G  =  280 kg/m2 s and (b) d = 10.15 mm, G = 600 kg/m2 s

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Figure 8

Typical shapes of steam jet discharged from a horizontal nozzle, d = 10 mm (G: Steam mass flux, kg/m2 s, Tp : Pool temperature)

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Figure 9

Radial temperature profiles in ellipsoidal steam cavity: d = 10.2 mm, G  =  460 kg/m2 s, and Tpool  = 60 °C

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Figure 10

Jet expansion ratio vs. pool temperature for d = 5 mm nozzle

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Figure 11

Dimensionless jet penetration length vs. pool temperature for d = 7.1 mm nozzle

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Figure 12

Comparison of the measured dimensionless penetration length with existing correlations

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Figure 13

Variation of the dynamic pressure at the pool wall: (a) d = 20 mm and (b) d = 10.15 mm

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Figure 14

Variation of pressure load measured at the wall and with the pool temperature and steam mass flux

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Figure 15

Condensation regime map for a four-hole sparger with P/d = 5

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Figure 16

Multihole steam jets: typical picture (above) and schematic of a velocity profile evolution (below)

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Figure 17

Schematic of a condensing jet

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Figure 18

Schematic of the round turbulent jet generated by a condensing jet

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Figure 19

Configuration of steam discharge in the JICO experiments (Choo and Song [27])

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Figure 20

Parameters to indicate the mean flow similarity of the turbulent jet generated by a condensing jet

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Figure 21

Basic SCRM model

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Figure 22

Radial distribution of normalized velocity in a turbulent jet: Reconstructed from Kang and Song [32]

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Figure 23

Concept of the SCRM model for multiple jets (Moon [36])

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Figure 24

Flow pattern reconstructed from the temperature measurements in the B&C test




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