Research Papers

Macroscopic and Microscale Phenomena in Multiphase Energy Storage and Transport Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Masahiro Kawaji

 Department of Mechanical Engineering, City College of New York, New York, NY 10031;  Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, M5S 3E5, Canadakawaji@me.ccny.cuny.edu

J. Heat Transfer 134(3), 031010 (Jan 13, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005159 History: Received October 15, 2010; Revised August 19, 2011; Published January 13, 2012; Online January 13, 2012

Complex macroscale and microscale heat and mass transfer phenomena are encountered in thermal energy storage and transport systems. Those systems involving ice slurries and nanoemulsions of phase change materials can be used for either cooling or heating applications or both, which can contribute to the reduced usage of electricity during peak hours. But heat and mass transfer and stability issues are encountered in the production, transport and storage of the heat storage media. In this paper, both the heat transfer enhancement effect and detrimental effects such as Ostwald ripening and supercooling are discussed along with the flow properties.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

A homogeneous ice slurry cell model for the melting of ice slurry mixture under stagnant conditions

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Figure 2

Evolution of ice crystal size due to Ostwald ripening over 20 h for a 4 wt. % ethanol-water ice slurry with an initial ice fraction of 4.0 wt. %

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Figure 3

Variation of ice crystal size distribution with time

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Figure 4

Evolution of ice crystal size distributing due to melting under heated conditions

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Figure 5

Schematic of an ice slurry flow loop

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Figure 6

Dimensionless ice slurry velocity profiles for Recf  ∼ 3900 and different heat fluxes

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Figure 7

Ice slurry temperature distributions for Recf  = 3800 and α* = 1:12

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Figure 8

Ice fraction distributions at Recf  ∼ 3800 near a heated wall for different ice fractions, Φv

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Figure 9

Effect of wall heat flux and ice fraction on local Nusselt number for Recf  ∼ 6600, Usl  ∼ 0.51 m/s and Aspect Ratio α* = 1:8

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Figure 10

Nucf,m as a function of Recf,m and Xs,m for α* = 1:8 at Thw,m  ∼ 41.0°C

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Figure 11

Comparison of experimental results with (a) Eq. 12 for average Nusselt number for turbulent convection and (b) Eq. 13 for local Nusselt number for laminar convection

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Figure 12

Tetradecane-water emulsion: (a) appearance and fluidity, (b) particle sizes and shapes, (c) size distribution (from Xu [35])

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Figure 13

Viscosity data for a tetradecane-water emulsion reported by Zhao and Shi [36]: (a) effective viscosity, (b) consistency index k, and (c) power law index n

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Figure 14

Pressure drop data for a tetradecane-water emulsion reported by Zhao and Shi [36]

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Figure 15

Friction factor data obtained for tetradecane-water emulsions by Chen [40]

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Figure 16

Viscosity variation with emulsion temperature (Chen [40])

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Figure 17

DSC measurements of a tetradecane-water emulsion with 30% tetradecane (from Yang [42])




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