Research Papers

Heat Transfer to Foods: Ensuring Safety and Creating Microstructure

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter J. Fryer, S. Bakalis

Centre for Formulation Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering,  University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UKp.j.fryer@bham.ac.uk

J. Heat Transfer 134(3), 031021 (Jan 20, 2012) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005157 History: Received September 20, 2010; Revised April 01, 2011; Published January 20, 2012; Online January 20, 2012

Heat transfer in foods is commonplace in the home and restaurant, but is also the basis for a very large industry. Foods are complex non-Newtonian soft solids or structured liquids whose thermal behavior is difficult to model; engineering understanding is needed to develop processes that are safe and products that are attractive to the consumer. The increasing incidence of obesity in the developed world, and of food shortage elsewhere, demands that the industry adopts processes that give nutritious products in environmentally acceptable ways. Heat transfer is often limited by the low thermal conductivity of foods and increasing heating and cooling rates is critical in maximizing product quality. This paper briefly reviews the heat transfer problems found in food processing, with particular reference to the modeling of heating to ensure safety, problems found in the fouling and cleaning and process plant, and how heating and cooling are used to generate food microstructure. Research challenges for the future are outlined.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.



Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

First order rate constants for the formation of flavour compounds (hydroxymethylfurfural or other O- containing heterocyclic compounds). (For references cited in the figure, see [22].)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Example of ohmic heating. Three-dimensional solution of the Laplace equation for the electrical heating of a fluid with electrical conductivity of 2 S/m containing a cube with an edge of 1 cm having electrical conductivities of (a) 1 S/m and (b) 4 S/m, showing the over- and under-heating which can result; particle is colder in (a) and hotter in (b).

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Example of high pressure heating. Thermal and flow profiles in the vessel containing the metal composite carrier. Temperature distributions at (a) 0 s: whole vessel at 90° C (b) 130 s (end of come up time), (c) 415 s (end of holding time at high pressure), and (d) 430 s (come down time) [39].

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

A simple cleaning map [120]

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

The crystallization behavior of chocolate, measured by DSC depending on (a) the shear applied during tempering [159] and (b) the temperature change applied during cooling (bottom curve) and subsequent heating (top curve) and (c) comparison between experimental and numerical results for chocolate cooled at 10 °C/min [(6),163]




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In