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Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Constructal Design of Particle Volume Fraction in Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Chao Bai

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong

Liqiu Wang1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Konglqwang@hku.hk

1

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 131(11), 112402 (Aug 26, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3155002 History: Received March 11, 2009; Revised April 16, 2009; Published August 26, 2009

We perform a constructal design of particle volume fraction of four types of nanofluids used for heat conduction in four systems: a circular disk, a sphere, a plane slab, and a circular annulus. The constructal volume fraction is obtained to minimize system overall temperature difference and overall thermal resistance. Also included are the features of the constructal volume fraction and the corresponding constructal thermal resistance, which is the minimal overall resistance to the heat flow. The constructal nanofluids that maximize the system performance are not necessarily the ones with uniformly dispersed particles in base fluids. Nanofluids research and development should thus focus on not only nanofluids but also systems that use them. The march toward micro- and nanoscales must also be with the sobering reminder that useful devices are always macroscopic, and that larger and larger numbers of small-scale components must be assembled and connected by flows that keep them alive.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Heat conduction in four systems of nanofluids: (a) a circular disk of radius Ro and unit thickness (System 1), (b) a sphere of radius Ro (System 2), (c) a plane slab of thickness Ro−Ri (System 3), and (d) a circular annulus of inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro (System 4)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Distribution of constructal particle volume fraction for System 2 at ϕ=0.05 and kp/kf=385/0.6 (thermal conductivity ratio of copper and water)

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Distribution of constructal particle volume fraction for System 4 at Ri/Ro=0.9, ϕ=0.05, and kp/kf=385/0.6 (thermal conductivity ratio of copper and water)

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