0
Research Papers: Bio-Heat and Mass Transfer

Numerical Analysis of Specific Absorption Rate and Heat Transfer in Human Head Subjected to Mobile Phone Radiation: Effects of User Age and Radiated Power

[+] Author and Article Information
Phadungsak Rattanadecho

e-mail: ratphadu@engr.tu.ac.th
Research Center of Microwave Utilization in
Engineering (RCME),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus,
Pathumthani 12120, Thailand

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received April 11, 2011; final manuscript received April 9, 2012; published online October 5, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Darrell W. Pepper.

J. Heat Transfer 134(12), 121101 (Dec 05, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4006595 History: Received April 11, 2011; Revised April 09, 2012

The human head is one of the most sensitive parts of the human entire body when exposed to electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation interacts with the human head and may lead to detrimental effects on human health. However, the resulting thermophysiologic response of the human head is not well understood. In order to gain insight into the phenomena occurring within the human head with temperature distribution induced by electromagnetic field, a detailed knowledge of absorbed power distribution as well as temperature distribution is necessary. This study presents a numerical analysis of specific absorption rate and heat transfer in the heterogeneous human head model exposed to mobile phone radiation. In the heterogeneous human head model, the effects of user age and radiated power on distributions of specific absorption rate and temperature profile within the human head are systematically investigated. This study focuses attention on organs in the human head in order to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human head. The specific absorption rate and the temperature distribution obtained by numerical solution of electromagnetic wave propagation and unsteady bioheat transfer equation in various tissues in the human head during exposure to mobile phone radiation are presented.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), 1998, “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz),” Health Phys., 74, pp.494–522. [PubMed]
IEEE, 1999, “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels With Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,” IEEE Standard C95.1-1999.
Guyton, A. C., and Hall, J. E., 1996, Textbook of Medical Physiology, Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, Chap. 73.
Adair, E. R., Adams, B. W., and Akel, G. M., 1984, “Minimal Changes in Hypothalamic Temperature Accompany Microwave-Induced Alteration of Thermoregulatory Behavior,” Bioelectromagnetics, 5, pp.13–30. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pennes, H. H., 1998, “Analysis of Tissue and Arterial Blood Temperatures in the Resting Human Forearm,” J. Appl. Phys., 85, pp.5–34.
Yang, D., Converse, M., and Mahvi, D., 2007, “Expanding the Bioheat Equation to Include Tissue Internal Water Evaporation During Heating,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 54, pp.1382–1388. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Okajima, J., Maruyama, S., and Takeda, H., 2009, “Dimensionless Solutions and General Characteristics of Bioheat Transfer During Thermal Therapy,” J. Therm. Biol., 34, pp.377–384. [CrossRef]
Chua, K. J., and Chou, S. K., 2009, “On the Study of the Freeze-Thaw Thermal Process of a Biological System,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29, pp.3696–3709. [CrossRef]
Yang, W. J., 1989, Biothermal‐Fluid Sciences, Hemisphere Publishing Company, Washington, D.C.
Wessapan, T., Srisawatdhisukul, S., and Rattanadecho, P., 2012, “Specific Absorption Rate and Temperature Distributions in Human Head Subjected to Mobile Phone Radiation at Different Frequencies,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55, pp.347–359. [CrossRef]
Wessapan, T., Srisawatdhisukul, S., and Rattanadecho, P., 2011, “Numerical Analysis of Specific Absorption Rate and Heat Transfer in the Human Body Exposed to Leakage Electromagnetic Field at 915 MHz and 2450 MHz,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133, p. 051101. [CrossRef]
Wessapan, T., Srisawatdhisukul, S., and Rattanadecho, P., 2011, “The Effects of Dielectric Shield on Specific Absorption Rate and Heat Transfer in the Human Body Exposed to Leakage Microwave Energy,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, pp.255–262. [CrossRef]
Keangin, P., Rattanadecho, P., and Wessapan, T., 2011, “An Analysis of Heat Transfer in Liver Tissue During Microwave Ablation Using Single and 2 Double Slot Antenna,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, pp.757–766. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., and Fujiwara, O., 2003, “Comparison and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Absorption Characteristics in Realistic Human Head Models of Adult and Children for 900-MHz Mobile Telephones,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 51, pp.966–971. [CrossRef]
Spiegel, R. J., 1984, “A Review of Numerical Models for Predicting the Energy Deposition and Resultant Thermal Response of Humans Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 32(8), pp.730–746. [CrossRef]
Kanai, H., Marushima, H., Kimura, N., Iwaki, T., Saito, M., Maehashi, H., Shimizu, K., Muto, M., Masaki, T., Ohkawa, K., Yokoyama, K., Nakayama, M., Harada, T., Hano, H., Hataba, Y., Fukuda, T., Nakamura, M., Totsuka, N., Ishikawa, S., Unemura, Y., Ishii, Y., Yanaga, K., and Matsuura, T., 2007, “Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver Using the Radial-Flow Bioreactor in Treatment of Fatal Experimental Hepatic Encephalopathy,” Artif. Organs, 31(2), pp.148–151. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shen, W., and Zhang, J., 2005, “Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Bioheat Transfer and Biomechanics in Soft Tissue,” Math. Comp. Model., 41, pp.1251–1265. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., Fujiwara, O., and Watanabe, S., 2006, “Approximation of Aging Effect on Dielectric Tissue Properties for SAR Assessment of Mobile Telephones,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., 48(2), pp.408–413. [CrossRef]
Hirata, A., Fujimoto, M., Asano, T., Wang, J., Fujiwara, O., and Shiozawa, T., 2006, “Correlation Between Maximum Temperature Increase and Peak SAR With Different Average Schemes and Masses,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., 48(3), pp.569–578. [CrossRef]
Nishizawa, S., and Hashimoto, O., 1999, “Effectiveness Analysis of Lossy Dielectric Shields for a Three-Layered Human Model,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 47(3), pp.277–283. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Human head model. (a) Cross section human head model with mobile phone. (b) Dimensions of human head model.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Human head exposed to mobile phone radiation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Boundary condition for analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Grid convergence curve of the 3D model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

A three-dimensional finite element mesh of human head model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

SAR distribution (W/kg) in adult and child heads exposed to the radiated power of 1 W at the frequency of 900 MHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Temperature distribution versus arc-length of adult head and child head exposed to the radiated power of 1 W for 30 min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of the maximum SAR in human tissues for adult and child heads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of the temperature increases in human tissues for adult and child heads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The temperature distribution in adult and child heads exposed to the radiated power of 1 W at the frequency of 900 MHz: (a) 1 min, (b) 10 min, and (c) 30 min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature distribution versus arc-length of child head at various times exposed to the electromagnetic frequency of 900 MHz at the radiated power of 1 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Geometry of the validation model obtained from the paper

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of the calculated SAR distribution to the SAR distribution obtained by Nishizawa and Hashimoto [20]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Electric field distribution (V/m) in adult and child heads exposed to the radiated power of 1 W at the frequency of 900 MHz

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temperature distribution versus arc-length of adult head at various times exposed to the electromagnetic frequency of 900 MHz at the radiated power of 1 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The slice plot and extrusion line in the human head. Slice plot of (a) SAR distribution and (b) temperature distribution. (c) The extrusion line in the human head where the SAR and temperature distributions are considered.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

SAR distribution versus arc-length of adult head and child head exposed to the radiated power of 1 W

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

SAR distribution versus arc-length of human head exposed to the electromagnetic frequency of 900 MHz at various radiated power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Temperature distribution versus arc-length of human head exposed to the electromagnetic frequency of 900 MHz at various radiated power, at t = 30 min

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In