0
Research Papers: Max Jakob Award Paper

Review and Advances in Heat Pipe Science and Technology

[+] Author and Article Information
Amir Faghri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT 06269
e-mail: faghri@engr.uconn.edu

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received July 16, 2012; final manuscript received August 6, 2012; published online October 10, 2012. Editor: Terrence W. Simon.

J. Heat Transfer 134(12), 123001 (Oct 10, 2012) (18 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007407 History: Received July 16, 2012; Revised August 06, 2012

Over the last several decades, several factors have contributed to a major transformation in heat pipe science and technology applications. The first major contribution was the development and advances of new heat pipes, such as loop heat pipes (LHPs), micro and miniature heat pipes, and pulsating heat pipes (PHPs). In addition, there are now many commercial applications that have helped contribute to the recent interest in heat pipes. For example, several million heat pipes are manufactured each month for applications in CPU cooling and laptop computers. Numerical modeling, analysis, and experimental simulation of heat pipes have significantly progressed due to a much greater understanding of various physical phenomena in heat pipes as well as advances in computational and experimental methodologies. A review is presented hereafter concerning the types of heat pipes, heat pipe analysis, and simulations.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Faghri, A., 1995, Heat Pipe Science and Technology, 1st ed., Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC.
Zuo, Z. J., and Faghri, A., 1998, “A Network Thermodynamic Analysis of the Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(11), pp. 1473–1484. [CrossRef]
Khalkhali, H., Faghri, A., and Zuo, Z. J., 1999, “Entropy Generation in a Heat Pipe System,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 19(10), pp. 1027–1043. [CrossRef]
Vasiliev, L. L., 2005, “Heat Pipes in Modern Heat Exchangers,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 25(1), pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Mochizuki, M., Nguyen, T., Mashiko, K., Saito, Y., Nguyen, T., and Wuttijumnong, V., 2011, “A Review of Heat Pipe Application Including New Opportunities,”Front. Heat Pipes, 2, p. 013001. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., Chen, M. M., and Morgan, M., 1989, “Heat Transfer Characteristics in Two-Phase Closed Conventional and Concentric Annular Thermosyphons,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(3), pp. 611–618. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., and Thomas, S., 1989, “Performance Characteristics of a Concentric Annular Heat Pipe: Part I—Experimental Prediction and Analysis of the Capillary Limit,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(4), pp. 844–850. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., 1989, “Performance Characteristics of a Concentric Annular Heat Pipe: Part II—Vapor Flow Analysis,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(4), pp. 851–857. [CrossRef]
Mochizuki, M., Saito, Y., Kiyooka, F., and Nguyen, T., 2006, “High Power Cooling Chips by Heat Pipes and Advanced Heat Spreader,” 8th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Kumamoto, Japan, pp. 214–221.
Mochizuki, M., Saito, Y., Kiyooka, F., Nguyen, T., Nguyen, T., and Wuttijumnong, V., 2007, “Advanced Micro-Channel Vapor Chamber for Cooling High Power Processors,” Proceedings of the ASME InterPack Conference (InterPACK2007), Vancouver, Canada, pp. 695–702. [CrossRef]
Xiao, B., and Faghri, A., 2008, “A Three-Dimensional Thermal-Fluid Analysis of Flat Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(11–12), pp. 3113–3126. [CrossRef]
Gray, V. H., 1969, “The Rotating Heat Pipe—A Wickless, Hollow Shaft for Transferring High Heat Fluxes,” Proceedings of ASME/AIChE Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, pp. 1–5.
Maydanik, Y. F., 2005, “Loop Heat Pipes,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 25(5–6), pp. 635–657. [CrossRef]
Maydanik, Y. F., Ferchtater, Y. G., and Goncharov, K. A., 1991, “Capillary Pump Loop for the Systems of Thermal Regulation of Spacecraft,” 4th European Symposium on Space Environment and Control Systems, Florence, Italy, Report No. ESA SP-324.
Stenger, F. J., 1966, “Experimental Feasibility Study of Water-Filled Capillary-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loops,” NASA LeRC Report No. NASA-TM-X-1310.
Ku, J., 1993, “Capillary Pump Loop for the Systems of Thermal Regulation of Spacecraft,” Proceedings of ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Akachi, H., 1990, “Structure of a Heat Pipe,” U.S. Patent No. 4,921,041.
Zhang, Y., and Faghri, A., 2008, “Advances and Unsolved Issues in Pulsating Heat Pipes,”Heat Transfer Eng., 29(1), pp. 20–44. [CrossRef]
Cotter, T. P., 1984, “Principles and Prospects for Micro Heat Pipes,” Proceedings of 5th International Heat Pipe Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 328–335.
Peterson, G. P., 1992, “Overview of Micro Heat Pipe Research and Development,”Appl. Mech. Rev., 45(5), pp. 175–189. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Micro/Miniature Heat Pipes and Operating Limitations,”J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 1(3), pp. 265–274.
Hopkins, R., Faghri, A., and Khrustalev, D., 1999, “Flat Miniature Heat Pipes With Micro Capillary Grooves,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(1), pp. 102–109. [CrossRef]
Peterson, G. P., and Ma, H. B., 1999, “Temperature Response of Heat Transport in a Micro Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(2), pp. 438–445. [CrossRef]
Le Berre, M., Launay, S., Sartre, V., and Lallemand, M., 2003, “Fabrication and Experimental Investigation of Silicon Micro Heat Pipes for Cooling Electronics,”J. Micromech. Microeng., 13(3), pp. 436–441. [CrossRef]
Launay, S., Sartre, V., and Lallemand, M., 2004, “Experimental Study on Silicon Micro-Heat Pipe Arrays,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(2–3), pp. 233–243. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Thermal Analysis of a Micro Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116(1), pp. 189–198. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1996, “Enhanced Flat Miniature Axially Grooved Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118(1), pp. 261–264. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Heat Transfer in the Inverted Meniscus Type Evaporator at High Heat Fluxes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(16), pp. 3091–3101. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1996, “Estimation of the Maximum Heat Flux in the Inverted Meniscus Type Evaporator of a Flat Miniature Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(9), pp. 1899–1909. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1991, “Transient Multidimensional Analysis of Nonconventional Heat Pipes With Uniform and Nonuniform Heat Distributions,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(4), pp. 995–1002. [CrossRef]
Zuo, Z. J., Faghri, A., and Langston, L., 1998, “Numerical Analysis of Heat Pipe Turbine Vane Cooling,”ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 120(4), pp. 735–743. [CrossRef]
Jang, J. H., Faghri, A., Chang, W. S., and Mahefkey, E. T., 1990, “Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Heat Pipe Start-Up From the Frozen State,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 112(3), pp. 586–594. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., 1992, “Frozen Start-Up Behavior of Low-Temperature Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 35(7), pp. 1681–1694. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., 1986, “Vapor Flow Analysis in a Double-Walled Concentric Heat Pipe,”Numerical Heat Transfer, 10(6), pp. 583–595. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., and Parvani, S., 1988, “Numerical Analysis of Laminar Flow in a Double-Walled Annular Heat Pipe,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 2(3), pp. 165–171. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., Faghri, A., and Mahefkey, E. T., 1989, “The Thermal Performance of Heat Pipes With Localized Heat Input,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(7), pp. 1279–1287. [CrossRef]
Rosenfeld, J. H., 1987, “Modeling of Heat Transfer Into a Heat Pipe for a Localized Heat Input Zone,”AIChE Symp. Ser., 83, pp. 71–76.
Chen, M. M., and Faghri, A., 1990, “An Analysis of the Vapor Flow and the Heat Conduction Through the Liquid-Wick and Pipe Wall in a Heat Pipe With Single Or Multiple Heat Sources,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33(9), pp. 1945–1955. [CrossRef]
Ivanovskii, M. N., Sorokin, V. P., and Yagodkin, I. V., 1982, The Physical Principles of Heat Pipes, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Faghri, A., and Buchko, M., 1991, “Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Low-Temperature Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(3), pp. 728–734. [CrossRef]
Schmalhofer, J., and Faghri, A., 1993, “A Study of Circumferentially-Heated and Block-Heated Heat Pipes—I. Experimental Analysis and Generalized Analytical Prediction of Capillary Limits,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36(1), pp. 201–212. [CrossRef]
Schmalhofer, J., and Faghri, A., 1993, “A Study of Circumferentially-Heated and Block-Heated Heat Pipes—II. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling as a Conjugate Problem,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36(1), pp. 213–226. [CrossRef]
Zhu, N., and Vafai, K., 1998, “Vapor and Liquid Flow in an Asymmetrical Flat Plate Heat Pipe: A Three—Dimensional Analytical and Numerical Investigation,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(1), pp. 159–174. [CrossRef]
Lefèvre, F., and Lallemand, M., 2006, “Coupled Thermal and Hydrodynamic Models of Flat Micro Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Multiple Electronic Components,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(7–8), pp. 1375–1383. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y., and Vafai, K., 2000, “An Experimental Investigation of the Transient Characteristics on a Flat-Plate Heat Pipe During Startup and Shutdown Operations,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 122(3), pp. 525–535. [CrossRef]
Aghvami, M., and Faghri, A., 2011, “Analysis of Flat Heat Pipes With Various Heating and Cooling Configurations,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(14–15), pp. 2645–2655. [CrossRef]
Shabgard, H., and Faghri, A., 2011, “Performance Characteristics of Cylindrical Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(16), pp. 3410–3419. [CrossRef]
Jang, J. H., Faghri, A., and Chang, W. S., 1991, “Analysis of the One-Dimensional Transient Compressible Vapor Flow in Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34(8), pp. 2029–2037. [CrossRef]
Bowman, W. J., 1987, “Simulated Heat Pipe Vapor Dynamics,” Ph.D. dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology, Dayton, OH.
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1990, “Transient Two-Dimensional Compressible Analysis for High-Temperature Heat Pipes With Pulsed Heat Input,”Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 18(4), pp. 483–502. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., Buchko, M., and Cao, Y., 1991, “A Study of High-Temperature Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources and Sinks: Part II—Analysis of Continuum Transient and Steady-State Experimental Data With Numerical Predictions,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(4), pp. 1010–1016. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., Buchko, M., and Cao, Y., 1991, “A Study of High-Temperature Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources and Sinks: Part I—Experimental Methodology and Frozen Startup Profiles,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(4), pp. 1003–1009. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1993, “Conjugate Modeling of High-Temperature Nosecap and Wing Leading Edge Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(3), pp. 819–822. [CrossRef]
Zuo, Z. J., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Boundary Element Approach to Transient Heat Pipe Analysis,”Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 32(3), pp. 205–220. [CrossRef]
Zhu, N., and Vafai, K., 1998, “Analytical Modeling of the Startup Characteristics of Asymmetrical Flat-Plate and Disk-Shaped Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(17), pp. 2619–2637. [CrossRef]
Rice, J., and Faghri, A., 2007, “Analysis of Porous Wick Heat Pipes, Including Capillary Dry-Out Limitations,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 21(3), pp. 475–486. [CrossRef]
Tournier, J. M., and El-Genk, M. S., 1994, “A Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(5), pp. 753–762. [CrossRef]
Ranjan, R., Murthy, J. Y., Garimella, S. V., and Vadakkan, U., 2011, “A Numerical Model for Transport in Flat Heat Pipes Considering Wick Microstructure Effects,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(1–3), pp. 153–168. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1993, “Simulation of the Early Startup Period of High-Temperature Heat Pipes From the Frozen State by a Rarefied Vapor Self-Diffusion Model,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(1), pp. 239–246. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1993, “A Numerical Analysis of High-Temperature Heat Pipe Startup From the Frozen State,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(1), pp. 247–254. [CrossRef]
Ponnappan, R., 1990, “Comparison of Vacuum and Gas-Loaded Mode Performances of a LMHP,” Proceedings of AIAA/ASME 5th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, Paper No. AIAA-90-1755. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1992, “Closed-Form Analytical Solutions of High-Temperature Heat Pipe Startup and Frozen Startup Limitation,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114(4), pp. 1028–1035. [CrossRef]
Hall, M. L., Merrigan, M. A., and Reid, R. S., 1994, “Status Report on the THROHPUT Transient Heat Pipe Modeling Code,” AIP Conf. Proc. of the 11th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion, American Institute of Physics, New York, NY, Vol. 301, pp. 965–970. [CrossRef]
Tournier, J. M., and El-Genk, M. S., 1996, “A Vapor Flow Model for Analysis of Liquid-Metal Heat Pipe Startup From a Frozen State,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(18), pp. 3767–3780. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Thermal Characteristics of Conventional and Flat Miniature Axially Grooved Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(4), pp. 1048–1054. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Heat Transfer During Evaporation on Capillary-Grooved Structures of Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(3), pp. 740–747. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., and Khrustalev, D., 1997, “Advances in Modeling of Enhanced Flat Miniature Heat Pipes With Capillary Grooves,”J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 4(2), pp. 99–109.
Do, K. H., Kim, S. J., and Garimella, S. V., 2008, “A Mathematical Model for Analyzing the Thermal Characteristics of a Flat Micro Heat Pipe With a Grooved Wick,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(19–20), pp. 4637–4650. [CrossRef]
Spendel, T., 1984, “Laminar Film Condensation Heat Transfer in Closed Two-Phase Thermosyphons,” Proceedings of 5th International Heat Pipe Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, May 14–18.
Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Complete Transient Two-Dimensional Analysis of Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphons Including the Falling Condensate Film,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116(2), pp. 418–426. [CrossRef]
Hijikata, K., Chen, S. J., and Tien, C. L., 1984, “Noncondensible Gas Effect on Condensation in a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 27(8), pp. 1319–1325. [CrossRef]
Kobayashi, Y., and Matsumoto, T., 1987, “Vapor Condensation in the Presence of Non-Condensible Gas in the Gravity Assisted Thermosyphon,” Proceedings of 6th International Heat Pipe Conference, Grenoble, France.
Peterson, P. F., and Tien, C. L., 1989, “Numerical and Analytical Solutions for Two-Dimensional Gas Distribution in Gas-Loaded Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(3), pp. 598–604. [CrossRef]
Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Transient Gas-Loaded Thermosyphon Analysis,” Proceedings of the 10th International Heat Transfer Conference, Brighton, England.
Zuo, Z. J., and Gunnerson, F. S., 1995, “Heat Transfer Analysis of an Inclined Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(4), pp. 1073–1075. [CrossRef]
Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Steady-State Performance in a Thermosyphon With Tube Separator,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 17(7), pp. 667–679. [CrossRef]
Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1998, “An Analysis of Two-Phase Flow Stability in a Thermosyphon With Tube Separator,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 18(6), pp. 441–455. [CrossRef]
El-Genk, M. S., and Saber, H. H., 1999, “Determination of Operation Envelopes for Closed, Two-Phase Thermosyphons,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(5), pp. 889–903. [CrossRef]
Pan, Y., 2001, “Condensation Heat Transfer Characteristics and Concept of Sub-Flooding Limit in a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 28(3), pp. 311–322. [CrossRef]
Jiao, B., Qiu, L. M., Zhang, X. B., and Zhang, Y., 2008, “Investigation on the Effect of Filling Ratio on the Steady-State Heat Transfer Performance of a Vertical Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 28(11–12), pp. 1417–1426. [CrossRef]
Jiao, B., Qiu, L. M., Gan, Z. H., and Zhang, X. B., 2012, “Determination of the Operation Range of a Vertical Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”Heat Mass Transfer, 48(6), pp. 1043–1055. [CrossRef]
Faghri, A., Gogineni, S., and Thomas, S., 1993, “Vapor Flow Analysis of an Axially Rotating Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36(9), pp. 2293–2303. [CrossRef]
Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Two-Dimensional Rotating Heat Pipe Analysis,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(1), pp. 202–208. [CrossRef]
Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Heat Transfer Analysis of Stratified Flow in Rotating Heat Pipes With Cylindrical and Stepped Walls,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 40(18), pp. 4393–4404. [CrossRef]
Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Steady-State Performance of a Rotating Miniature Heat Pipe,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 11(4), pp. 513–518. [CrossRef]
Lin, L. C., and Faghri, A., 1998, “Condensation in Rotating Stepped Wall Heat Pipes With Hysteretic Annular Flow,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 12(1), pp. 94–99. [CrossRef]
Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1999, “Heat Transfer in Micro Region of a Rotating Miniature Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(8), pp. 1363–1369. [CrossRef]
Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 2000, “Transient Gas-Loaded Rotating Heat Pipes,” Proceedings of the 15th National and 4th ISHMT/ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, Pune, India.
Maydanik, Y. F., Fershtater, Y. G., and Solodovnik, N., 1994, “Loop Heat Pipes: Design, Investigation, Prospects of Use in Aerospace Technics,” SAE Paper No. 941185. [CrossRef]
Kaya, T., and Hoang, T. T., 1999, “Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes and Experimental Validation,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 13(3), pp. 314–320. [CrossRef]
Hoang, T. T., and Kaya, T., 1999, “Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes With Two-Phase Pressure Drop,” AIAA Paper No. 1999-3448 [CrossRef].
Kaya, T., and Ku, J., 1999, “A Parametric Study of Performance Characteristics of Loop Heat Pipes,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-2006. [CrossRef]
Muraoka, I., Ramos, F. M., and Vlassov, V. V., 2001, “Analysis of the Operational Characteristics and Limits of a Loop Heat Pipe With Porous Element in the Condenser,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44(12), pp. 2287–2297. [CrossRef]
Kaya, T., and Ku, J., 2003, “Thermal Operational Characteristics of a Small-Loop Heat Pipe,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 17(4), pp. 464–470. [CrossRef]
Hamdan, M. O., 2003, “Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) Modeling and Development by Utilizing Coherent Porous Silicon (CPS) Wicks,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.
Chuang, P. A., 2003, “An Improved Steady-State Model of Loop Heat Pipe Based on Experimental and Theoretical Analyses,” Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
Furukawa, M., 2006, “Model-Based Method of Theoretical Design Analysis of a Loop Heat Pipe,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 20(1), pp. 111–121. [CrossRef]
Kaya, T., and Goldak, J., 2006, “Numerical Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer in the Capillary Structure of a Loop Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(17–18), pp. 3211–3220. [CrossRef]
Launay, S., Sartre, V., and Bonjour, J., 2007, “Parametric Analysis of Loop Heat Pipe Operation: A Literature Review,”Int. J. Therm. Sci., 46(7), pp. 621–636. [CrossRef]
Launay, S., Sartre, V., and Bonjourn, J., 2008, “Analytical Model for Characterization of Loop Heat Pipes,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 22(4), pp. 623–631. [CrossRef]
Cullimore, B., and Baumann, J., 2000, “Steady State and Transient Loop Heat Pipe Modeling,” Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES), Toulouse, France, SAE Paper No. 2000-01-2316. [CrossRef]
Hoang, T., and Ku, J., 2003, “Transient Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-6082. [CrossRef]
Launay, S., SartreV., and Bonjour, J., 2007, “Effects of Fluid Thermophysical Properties on Loop Heat Pipe Operation,” Proceedings of the 14th International Heat Pipe Conference, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Launay, S., Platel, V., Dutour, S., and Joly, J. L., 2007, “Transient Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes for the Oscillating Behavior Study,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 21(3), pp. 487–495. [CrossRef]
Kaya, T., Pérez, R., Gregori, C., and Torres, A., 2008, “Numerical Simulation of Transient Operation of Loop Heat Pipes,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 28(8–9), pp. 967–974. [CrossRef]
Chernysheva, M. A., and Maydanik, Y. F., 2008, “Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat and Mass Transfer in a Cylindrical Evaporator of a Loop Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(17–18), pp. 4204–4215. [CrossRef]
Khrustalev, D., 2010, “Advances in Transient Modeling of Loop Heat Pipe Systems With Multiple Components,” AIP Conf. Proc., 1208, pp. 55–-67. [CrossRef]
Boo, J. H., and Chung, W. B., 2004, “Thermal Performance of a Small-Scale Loop Heat Pipe With PP Wick,” Proceedings of the 13th International Heat Pipe Conference, Shanghai, China, pp. 259–264.
Ambirajan, A., Adoni, A. A., Vaidya, J. S., Rajendran, A. A., Kumar, D., and Dutta, P., 2012, “Loop Heat Pipes: A Review of Fundamentals, Operation, and Design,”Heat Transfer Eng., 33(4–5), pp. 387–405. [CrossRef]
Kiper, A. M., Feric, G., Anjum, M., and Swanson, T. D., 1990, “Transient Analysis of a Capillary Pumped Loop Heat Pipe,” Proceedings of AIAA/ASME 5th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Seattle, WA, Paper No. AIAA-90-1685. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Conjugate Analysis of a Flat-Plate Type Evaporator for Capillary Pumped Loops With Three-Dimensional Vapor Flow in the Groove,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(3), pp. 401–409. [CrossRef]
Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Analytical Solutions of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Porous Structure With Partial Heating and Evaporation on the Upper Surface,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(10), pp. 1525–1533. [CrossRef]
Kroliczek, E. J., Ku, J., and Ollendorf, S., 1984, “Design, Development, and Test of a Capillary Pump Loop Heat Pipe,” Proceedings of AIAA 19th Thermophysics Conference, Snowmass, CO, Paper No. AIAA-84-1720 [CrossRef].
Ku, J., Kroliczek, E. J., Butler, D., Schweickart, R. B., and McIntosh, R., 1986, “Capillary Pumped Loop GAS and Hitchhiker Flight Experiments,” Proceedings of AIAA/ASME 4th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston, MA, Paper No. AIAA-86-1249. [CrossRef]
Ku, J., Kroliczek, E. J., Taylor, W. J., and McIntosh, R., 1986, “Functional and Performance Tests of Two Capillary Pumped Loop Engineering Models,” Proceedings of AIAA/ASME 4th Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Boston, MA, Paper No. AIAA-86-1248. [CrossRef]
Ku, J., Kroliczek, E. J., and McIntosh, R., 1987, “Analytical Modelling of the Capillary Pumped Loop,” Proceedings of the 6th International Heat Pipe Conference, Grenoble, France.
Ku, J., Kroliczek, E. J., and McIntosh, R., 1987, “Capillary Pumped Loop Technology Development,” Proceedings of the 6th International Heat Pipe Conference, Grenoble, France.
Chalmers, D. R., Fredley, J., Ku, J., and Kroliczek, E. J., 1988, “Design of a Two-Phase Capillary Pumped Flight Experiment,” Proceedings of 18th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems, San Francisco, CA, SAE Paper No. 881086. [CrossRef]
Ku, J., Kroliczek, E. J., McCabe, M. E., and Benner, S. M., 1988, “A High Power Spacecraft Thermal Management System,” Proceedings of AIAA Thermophysics, Plasmadynamics, and Lasers Conference, San Antonio, TX, Paper No. AIAA-88-2702 [CrossRef].
Benner, S., Costello, F., and Ku, J., 1989, “SINFAC Simulation of a High-Power Hybrid CPL,” Proceedings of 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, AIAA Paper No. AIAA-89-0316. [CrossRef]
Cullimore, B., 1991, “Start Up Transients in Capillary Pumped Loops,” AIAA 26th Thermophysics Conference, Honolulu, HI, Paper No. AIAA-91-1374. [CrossRef]
Wu, D., and Peterson, G. P., 1991, “Investigation of the Transient Characteristics of a Micro Heat Pipe,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 5(2), pp. 129–134. [CrossRef]
Sartre, V., Zaghdoudi, M. C., and Lallemand, M., 2000, “Effect of Interfacial Phenomena on Evaporative Heat Transfer in Micro Heat Pipes 1,”Int. J. Therm. Sci., 39(4), pp. 498–504. [CrossRef]
Suman, B., and Kumar, P., 2005, “An Analytical Model for Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in a Micro-Heat Pipe of Polygonal Shape,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(21–22), pp. 4498–4509. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. X., and Peterson, G. P., 2002, “Analysis of Wire-Bonded Micro Heat Pipe Arrays,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 16(3), pp. 346–355. [CrossRef]
Launay, S., Sartre, V., Mantelli, M. B. H., De Paiva, K. V., and Lallemand, M., 2004, “Investigation of a Wire Plate Micro Heat Pipe Array,”Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43(5), pp. 499–507. [CrossRef]
Miyazaki, Y., and Akachi, H., 1996, “Heat Transfer Characteristics of Looped Capillary Heat Pipe,” Proceedings of the 5th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 378–383.
Miyazaki, Y., and Akachi, H., 1998, “Self Excited Oscillation of Slug Flow in a Micro Channel,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Lyon, France.
Miyazaki, Y., and Arikawa, M., 1999, “Oscillatory Flow in the Oscillating Heat Pipe,” Proceedings of the 11th International Heat Pipe Conference, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 131–136.
Hosoda, M., Nishio, S., and Shirakashi, R., 1999, “Meandering Closed Loop Heat Transport Tube (Propagation Phenomena of Vapor Plug),” Proceedings of the 5th ASME/JSME Joint Thermal Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, pp. 1–6, Paper No. AJTE99-6306.
Zuo, Z. J., North, M. T., and Ray, L., 1999, “Combined Pulsating and Capillary Heat Pipe Mechanism for Cooling of High Heat Flux Electronics,” Proceedings of ASME Heat Transfer Device Conference, Nashville, TN, pp. 2237–2243.
Zuo, Z. J., North, M. T., and Wert, K. L., 2001, “High Heat Flux Heat Pipe Mechanism for Cooling of Electronics,”IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 24(2), pp. 220–225. [CrossRef]
Wong, T. N., Tong, B. Y., Lim, S. M., and Ooi, K. T., 1999, “Theoretical Modeling of Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Proceedings of the 11th International Heat Pipe Conference, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 159–163.
Shafii, M. B., Faghri, A., and Zhang, Y., 2001, “Thermal Modeling of Unlooped and Looped Pulsating Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123(6), pp. 1159–1172. [CrossRef]
Sakulchangsatjatai, P., Terdtoon, P., Wongratanaphisan, T., Kamonpet, P., and Murakami, M., 2004, “Operation Modeling of Closed-End and Closed-Loop Oscillating Heat Pipes at Normal Operating Condition,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(7), pp. 995–1008. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y., Faghri, A., and Shafii, M. B., 2002, “Analysis of Liquid-Vapor Pulsating Flow in a U-Shaped Miniature Tube,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(12), pp. 2501–2508. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y., and Faghri, A., 2003, “Oscillatory Flow in Pulsating Heat Pipes With Arbitrary Numbers of Turns,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 17(3), pp. 340–347. [CrossRef]
Dobson, R. T., and Harms, T. M., 1999, “Lumped Parameter Analysis of Closed and Open Oscillatory Heat Pipes,” Proceedings of the 11th International Heat Pipe Conference, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 12–16.
Dobson, R. T., 2004, “Theoretical and Experimental Modelling of an Open Oscillatory Heat Pipe Including Gravity,”Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43(2), pp. 113–119. [CrossRef]
Dobson, R. T., 2005, “An Open Oscillatory Heat Pipe Water Pump,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 25(4), pp. 603–621. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. W., and Faghri, A., 2002, “Heat Transfer in a Pulsating Heat Pipe With Open End,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(4), pp. 755–764. [CrossRef]
Shafii, M. B., Faghri, A., and Zhang, Y., 2002, “Analysis of Heat Transfer in Unlooped and Looped Pulsating Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow, 12(5), pp. 585–609. [CrossRef]
Liang, S. B., and Ma, H. B., 2004, “Oscillating Motions of Slug Flow in Capillary Tubes,”Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 31(3), pp. 365–375. [CrossRef]
Ma, H. B., Hanlon, M. A., and Chen, C. L., 2006, “An Investigation of Oscillating Motions in a Miniature Pulsating Heat Pipe,”Microfluid. Nanofluid., 2(2), pp. 171–179. [CrossRef]
Ma, H. B., Maschmann, M. R., and Liang, S. B., 2002, “Heat Transport Capability in Pulsating Heat Pipes,” 8th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference, Paper No. AIAA 2002-2765. [CrossRef]
Holley, B., and Faghri, A., 2005, “Analysis of Pulsating Heat Pipe With Capillary Wick and Varying Channel Diameter,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(13), pp. 2635–2651. [CrossRef]
Khandekar, S., Schneider, M., Schäfer, P., Kulenovic, R., and Groll, M., 2002, “Thermofluid Dynamic Study of Flat-Plate Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes,”Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 6(4), pp. 303–317. [CrossRef]
Khandekar, S., and Gupta, A., 2007, “Embedded Pulsating Heat Pipe Radiators,” Proceedings of the 14th International Heat Pipe Conference, Florianopolis, Brazil, pp. 22–27.
Marcus, B. D., and Fleishman, G. L., 1970, “Steady State and Transient Performance of Hot Reservoir Gas-Controlled Heat Pipes,” ASME Paper No. 70-HT/SpT-11.
Edwards, D. K., and Marcus, B. D., 1972, “Heat and Mass Transfer in the Vicinity of the Vapor-Gas Front in a Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 94(2), pp. 155–162. [CrossRef]
Shukla, K. N., 1981, “Transient Response of a Gas-Controlled Heat Pipe,”AIAA J., 19(8), pp. 1063–1070. [CrossRef]
Rohani, A. R., and Tien, C. L., 1973, “Steady Two-Dimensional Heat and Mass Transfer in the Vapor-Gas Region of a Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 95(3), pp. 377–382. [CrossRef]
Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Transient Two-Dimensional Gas-Loaded Heat Pipe Analysis,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116(3), pp. 716–723. [CrossRef]
Ponnappan, R., 1989, “Studies on the Startup Transients and Performance of a Gas Loaded Sodium Heat Pipe,” Technical Report, Report No. WRDC-TR-89-2046.
Faghri, A., and Harley, C., 1994, “Transient Lumped Heat Pipe Analyses,”Heat Recovery Syst. CHP, 14(4), pp. 351–363. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Axial variation of the liquid–vapor interface and the vapor and (b) liquid pressures along the heat pipe at moderate vapor flow rates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Thermal resistance model of a typical heat pipe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pulsating heat pipe (a) unlooped and (b) looped

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic of an inverted meniscus type evaporator with the triangular fin: (a) with low heat fluxes and (b) with high heat fluxes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Conceptual design of a leading edge heat pipe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The axial interface temperature profile along the sodium heat pipe with Q = 560 W, Rv = 0.007 m, Le = 0.1 m, La = 0.05 m, kl = 66.2 W/m2 K, ks = 19.0 W/m2 K, δl = 0.0005 m, δw = 0.001 m [38]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Heat pipe wall and vapor temperature versus axial location for (a) single evaporator and (b) two evaporators [40]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Centerline vapor temperature for transient response to heat input pulse: (a) convective boundary condition and (b) radiative boundary condition [50]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Leading edge heat pipe outer wall temperature distribution [53]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Wall temperature prediction for frozen start up by Cao and Faghri [60] compared with the experimental data of (a) Faghri et al. [52] and (b) Ponnappan [61]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Analytical wall temperature prediction for frozen startup by Cao and Faghri [62] compared with experimental data of (a) Faghri et al. [52] and (b) Ponnappan [61]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of the model predictions with experimental data ((symbols) experimental data from Hopkins et al. [22] and (lines) numerical simulation results from the Do et al. [68] model): (a) maximum heat transport rate and (b) wall temperature. (Adopted from Do et al. [68].)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of LHP modeling predictions [100] with experimental results of (a) Chuang [96] for ammonia as the working fluid and (b) Boo and Chung [108] for acetone as the working fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Heat transfer rate: (a) sensible heat and (b) evaporative heat [142]

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In