Faghri, A., 1995, *Heat Pipe Science and Technology*, 1st ed., Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC.

Zuo, Z. J., and Faghri, A., 1998, “A Network Thermodynamic Analysis of the Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(11), pp. 1473–1484.

[CrossRef]Khalkhali, H., Faghri, A., and Zuo, Z. J., 1999, “Entropy Generation in a Heat Pipe System,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 19(10), pp. 1027–1043.

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[CrossRef]Faghri, A., Chen, M. M., and Morgan, M., 1989, “Heat Transfer Characteristics in Two-Phase Closed Conventional and Concentric Annular Thermosyphons,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(3), pp. 611–618.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., and Thomas, S., 1989, “Performance Characteristics of a Concentric Annular Heat Pipe: Part I—Experimental Prediction and Analysis of the Capillary Limit,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(4), pp. 844–850.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., 1989, “Performance Characteristics of a Concentric Annular Heat Pipe: Part II—Vapor Flow Analysis,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(4), pp. 851–857.

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Mochizuki, M., Saito, Y., Kiyooka, F., Nguyen, T., Nguyen, T., and Wuttijumnong, V., 2007, “Advanced Micro-Channel Vapor Chamber for Cooling High Power Processors,” Proceedings of the ASME InterPack Conference (InterPACK2007), Vancouver, Canada, pp. 695–702.

[CrossRef]Xiao, B., and Faghri, A., 2008, “A Three-Dimensional Thermal-Fluid Analysis of Flat Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(11–12), pp. 3113–3126.

[CrossRef]Gray, V. H., 1969, “The Rotating Heat Pipe—A Wickless, Hollow Shaft for Transferring High Heat Fluxes,” Proceedings of ASME/AIChE Heat Transfer Conference, Minneapolis, pp. 1–5.

Maydanik, Y. F., 2005, “Loop Heat Pipes,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 25(5–6), pp. 635–657.

[CrossRef]Maydanik, Y. F., Ferchtater, Y. G., and Goncharov, K. A., 1991, “Capillary Pump Loop for the Systems of Thermal Regulation of Spacecraft,” 4th European Symposium on Space Environment and Control Systems, Florence, Italy, Report No. ESA SP-324.

Stenger, F. J., 1966, “Experimental Feasibility Study of Water-Filled Capillary-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loops,” NASA LeRC Report No. NASA-TM-X-1310.

Ku, J., 1993, “Capillary Pump Loop for the Systems of Thermal Regulation of Spacecraft,” Proceedings of ASME National Heat Transfer Conference, Atlanta, GA.

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Zhang, Y., and Faghri, A., 2008, “Advances and Unsolved Issues in Pulsating Heat Pipes,”Heat Transfer Eng., 29(1), pp. 20–44.

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Peterson, G. P., 1992, “Overview of Micro Heat Pipe Research and Development,”Appl. Mech. Rev., 45(5), pp. 175–189.

[CrossRef]Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Micro/Miniature Heat Pipes and Operating Limitations,”J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 1(3), pp. 265–274.

Hopkins, R., Faghri, A., and Khrustalev, D., 1999, “Flat Miniature Heat Pipes With Micro Capillary Grooves,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(1), pp. 102–109.

[CrossRef]Peterson, G. P., and Ma, H. B., 1999, “Temperature Response of Heat Transport in a Micro Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(2), pp. 438–445.

[CrossRef]Le Berre, M., Launay, S., Sartre, V., and Lallemand, M., 2003, “Fabrication and Experimental Investigation of Silicon Micro Heat Pipes for Cooling Electronics,”J. Micromech. Microeng., 13(3), pp. 436–441.

[CrossRef]Launay, S., Sartre, V., and Lallemand, M., 2004, “Experimental Study on Silicon Micro-Heat Pipe Arrays,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(2–3), pp. 233–243.

[CrossRef]Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Thermal Analysis of a Micro Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116(1), pp. 189–198.

[CrossRef]Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1996, “Enhanced Flat Miniature Axially Grooved Heat Pipe,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 118(1), pp. 261–264.

[CrossRef]Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Heat Transfer in the Inverted Meniscus Type Evaporator at High Heat Fluxes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(16), pp. 3091–3101.

[CrossRef]Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1996, “Estimation of the Maximum Heat Flux in the Inverted Meniscus Type Evaporator of a Flat Miniature Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(9), pp. 1899–1909.

[CrossRef]Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1991, “Transient Multidimensional Analysis of Nonconventional Heat Pipes With Uniform and Nonuniform Heat Distributions,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(4), pp. 995–1002.

[CrossRef]Zuo, Z. J., Faghri, A., and Langston, L., 1998, “Numerical Analysis of Heat Pipe Turbine Vane Cooling,”ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 120(4), pp. 735–743.

[CrossRef]Jang, J. H., Faghri, A., Chang, W. S., and Mahefkey, E. T., 1990, “Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Heat Pipe Start-Up From the Frozen State,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 112(3), pp. 586–594.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., 1992, “Frozen Start-Up Behavior of Low-Temperature Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 35(7), pp. 1681–1694.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., 1986, “Vapor Flow Analysis in a Double-Walled Concentric Heat Pipe,”Numerical Heat Transfer, 10(6), pp. 583–595.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., and Parvani, S., 1988, “Numerical Analysis of Laminar Flow in a Double-Walled Annular Heat Pipe,”J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 2(3), pp. 165–171.

[CrossRef]Cao, Y., Faghri, A., and Mahefkey, E. T., 1989, “The Thermal Performance of Heat Pipes With Localized Heat Input,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(7), pp. 1279–1287.

[CrossRef]Rosenfeld, J. H., 1987, “Modeling of Heat Transfer Into a Heat Pipe for a Localized Heat Input Zone,”AIChE Symp. Ser., 83, pp. 71–76.

Chen, M. M., and Faghri, A., 1990, “An Analysis of the Vapor Flow and the Heat Conduction Through the Liquid-Wick and Pipe Wall in a Heat Pipe With Single Or Multiple Heat Sources,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 33(9), pp. 1945–1955.

[CrossRef]Ivanovskii, M. N., Sorokin, V. P., and Yagodkin, I. V., 1982, *The Physical Principles of Heat Pipes*, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.

Faghri, A., and Buchko, M., 1991, “Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Low-Temperature Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(3), pp. 728–734.

[CrossRef]Schmalhofer, J., and Faghri, A., 1993, “A Study of Circumferentially-Heated and Block-Heated Heat Pipes—I. Experimental Analysis and Generalized Analytical Prediction of Capillary Limits,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36(1), pp. 201–212.

[CrossRef]Schmalhofer, J., and Faghri, A., 1993, “A Study of Circumferentially-Heated and Block-Heated Heat Pipes—II. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling as a Conjugate Problem,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 36(1), pp. 213–226.

[CrossRef]Zhu, N., and Vafai, K., 1998, “Vapor and Liquid Flow in an Asymmetrical Flat Plate Heat Pipe: A Three—Dimensional Analytical and Numerical Investigation,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(1), pp. 159–174.

[CrossRef]Lefèvre, F., and Lallemand, M., 2006, “Coupled Thermal and Hydrodynamic Models of Flat Micro Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Multiple Electronic Components,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(7–8), pp. 1375–1383.

[CrossRef]Wang, Y., and Vafai, K., 2000, “An Experimental Investigation of the Transient Characteristics on a Flat-Plate Heat Pipe During Startup and Shutdown Operations,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 122(3), pp. 525–535.

[CrossRef]Aghvami, M., and Faghri, A., 2011, “Analysis of Flat Heat Pipes With Various Heating and Cooling Configurations,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(14–15), pp. 2645–2655.

[CrossRef]Shabgard, H., and Faghri, A., 2011, “Performance Characteristics of Cylindrical Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(16), pp. 3410–3419.

[CrossRef]Jang, J. H., Faghri, A., and Chang, W. S., 1991, “Analysis of the One-Dimensional Transient Compressible Vapor Flow in Heat Pipes,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34(8), pp. 2029–2037.

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Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1990, “Transient Two-Dimensional Compressible Analysis for High-Temperature Heat Pipes With Pulsed Heat Input,”Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 18(4), pp. 483–502.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., Buchko, M., and Cao, Y., 1991, “A Study of High-Temperature Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources and Sinks: Part II—Analysis of Continuum Transient and Steady-State Experimental Data With Numerical Predictions,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(4), pp. 1010–1016.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., Buchko, M., and Cao, Y., 1991, “A Study of High-Temperature Heat Pipes With Multiple Heat Sources and Sinks: Part I—Experimental Methodology and Frozen Startup Profiles,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 113(4), pp. 1003–1009.

[CrossRef]Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1993, “Conjugate Modeling of High-Temperature Nosecap and Wing Leading Edge Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(3), pp. 819–822.

[CrossRef]Zuo, Z. J., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Boundary Element Approach to Transient Heat Pipe Analysis,”Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 32(3), pp. 205–220.

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[CrossRef]Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1993, “Simulation of the Early Startup Period of High-Temperature Heat Pipes From the Frozen State by a Rarefied Vapor Self-Diffusion Model,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(1), pp. 239–246.

[CrossRef]Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1993, “A Numerical Analysis of High-Temperature Heat Pipe Startup From the Frozen State,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(1), pp. 247–254.

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[CrossRef]Cao, Y., and Faghri, A., 1992, “Closed-Form Analytical Solutions of High-Temperature Heat Pipe Startup and Frozen Startup Limitation,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114(4), pp. 1028–1035.

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[CrossRef]Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Thermal Characteristics of Conventional and Flat Miniature Axially Grooved Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(4), pp. 1048–1054.

[CrossRef]Khrustalev, D., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Heat Transfer During Evaporation on Capillary-Grooved Structures of Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(3), pp. 740–747.

[CrossRef]Faghri, A., and Khrustalev, D., 1997, “Advances in Modeling of Enhanced Flat Miniature Heat Pipes With Capillary Grooves,”J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 4(2), pp. 99–109.

Do, K. H., Kim, S. J., and Garimella, S. V., 2008, “A Mathematical Model for Analyzing the Thermal Characteristics of a Flat Micro Heat Pipe With a Grooved Wick,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(19–20), pp. 4637–4650.

[CrossRef]Spendel, T., 1984, “Laminar Film Condensation Heat Transfer in Closed Two-Phase Thermosyphons,” Proceedings of 5th International Heat Pipe Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, May 14–18.

Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Complete Transient Two-Dimensional Analysis of Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphons Including the Falling Condensate Film,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 116(2), pp. 418–426.

[CrossRef]Hijikata, K., Chen, S. J., and Tien, C. L., 1984, “Noncondensible Gas Effect on Condensation in a Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 27(8), pp. 1319–1325.

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Peterson, P. F., and Tien, C. L., 1989, “Numerical and Analytical Solutions for Two-Dimensional Gas Distribution in Gas-Loaded Heat Pipes,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111(3), pp. 598–604.

[CrossRef]Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1994, “Transient Gas-Loaded Thermosyphon Analysis,” Proceedings of the 10th International Heat Transfer Conference, Brighton, England.

Zuo, Z. J., and Gunnerson, F. S., 1995, “Heat Transfer Analysis of an Inclined Two-Phase Closed Thermosyphon,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(4), pp. 1073–1075.

[CrossRef]Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Steady-State Performance in a Thermosyphon With Tube Separator,”Appl. Therm. Eng., 17(7), pp. 667–679.

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[CrossRef]El-Genk, M. S., and Saber, H. H., 1999, “Determination of Operation Envelopes for Closed, Two-Phase Thermosyphons,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(5), pp. 889–903.

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[CrossRef]Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 1995, “Two-Dimensional Rotating Heat Pipe Analysis,”ASME J. Heat Transfer, 117(1), pp. 202–208.

[CrossRef]Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1997, “Heat Transfer Analysis of Stratified Flow in Rotating Heat Pipes With Cylindrical and Stepped Walls,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 40(18), pp. 4393–4404.

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[CrossRef]Lin, L., and Faghri, A., 1999, “Heat Transfer in Micro Region of a Rotating Miniature Heat Pipe,”Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(8), pp. 1363–1369.

[CrossRef]Harley, C., and Faghri, A., 2000, “Transient Gas-Loaded Rotating Heat Pipes,” Proceedings of the 15th National and 4th ISHMT/ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, Pune, India.

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Zuo, Z. J., North, M. T., and Ray, L., 1999, “Combined Pulsating and Capillary Heat Pipe Mechanism for Cooling of High Heat Flux Electronics,” Proceedings of ASME Heat Transfer Device Conference, Nashville, TN, pp. 2237–2243.

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