Spalding, D. B., 1951, “The Combustion of Liquid Fuels,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.

Spalding, D. B., 1963, *Convective Mass Transfer: An Introduction*, Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London.

von Karman, T., 1921, “Uber Laminare und Turbulente Reibung,” Z Angew. Math. Mech., 1, pp. 233–252.

[CrossRef]Kruzhilin, G. N., 1936, “Issledovanie Teplovogo Pogranichnogo Sloia,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 2, pp. 183–190.

Eckert, E. R. G., and Lieblein, V., 1949, “Berechnung Des Stoffüberganges an Einer Ebenen, Längs Angeströmten Oberfläche Bei Großem Teildruckgefälle,” Forsch. Geb. Ingenieurwes., 16(2), pp. 33–42.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1964, “A Unified Theory of Friction, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer in the Turbulent Boundary Layer and Wall Jet,” Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, March, UK Aeronautical Research Council Report No. A.R.C. 25 925.

Ricou, F. P., and Spalding, D. B., 1961, “Measurements of Entrainment by Axisymmetrical Turbulent Jets,” J. Fluid Mech., 11(1), pp. 21–32.

[CrossRef]Escudier, M. P., and Nicoll, W. B., 1966, “The Entrainment Function in Turbulent-Boundary-Layer and Wall-Jet Calculations,” J. Fluid Mech., 25, pp. 337–366.

[CrossRef]Escudier, M. P., 1967, “The Turbulent Incompressible Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College, London University, UK.

Jayatilleke, C. L. V., 1969, “The Influence of Prandtl Number and Surface Roughness on the Resistance of the Laminar Sub-Layer to Momentum and Heat Transfer,” Prog. Heat Mass Transfer, 1, pp. 193–329.

Harlow, F. H., 2004, “Fluid Dynamics in Group T-3,” J. Comput. Phys., 195, pp. 414–433.

[CrossRef]Runchal, A. K., 2009, “Brian Spalding: CFD and Reality—A Personal Recollection,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 4063–4073.

[CrossRef]Artemov, V., Escudier, M. P., Fueyo, N., Launder, B. E., Leonardi, E., Malin, M. R., Minkowycz, W. J., Patankar, S. V., Pollard, A., Rodi, W., Runchal, A., and Vanka, S. P., 2009, “A Tribute to D.B. Spalding and His Contributions in Science and Engineering,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 3884–3905.

[CrossRef]Pohlhausen, K., 1921, “Zur Näherungsweisen Integration der Differentialgleichung der Laminaren Grenzschicht,” ZAMM I, pp. 252–208.

[CrossRef]Morton, B. R., Taylor, G. I., and Turner, J. S., 1956, “Turbulent Gravitational Convection From Maintained and Instantaneous Sources,” Proc. R. Soc. London A, 234, pp. 1–23.

[CrossRef]Patankar, S. V., and Spalding, D. B., 1966, “A Calculation Procedure for Heat Transfer by Forced Convection Through Two-Dimensional Uniform-Property Turbulent Boundary Layers on Smooth Impermeable Walls,” Proceedings 3rd International Heat Transfer Conference, Chicago, Vol. 2, pp. 50–63.

Patankar, S. V., and Spalding, D. B., 1967, *Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Layers*, Morgan-Grampian, London.

Patankar, S. V., and Spalding, D. B., 1970, *Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Layers: A General Calculation Procedure*, 2nd ed., Intertext Books, London.

Spalding, D. B., 1977, *GENMIX: A General Computer Program for Two-Dimensional Parabolic Phenomena*, 1st ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Runchal, A. K., 1972, “Convergence and Accuracy of Three Finite–Difference Schemes for a Two-Dimensional Conduction and Convection Problem,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 4, pp. 540–550.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1981, “A General Purpose Computer Program for Multi-Dimensional One- and Two-Phase Flow,” Math. Comput. Simul., 23, pp. 267–276.

[CrossRef]Thom, A., 1928, “An Investigation of Fluid Flow in Two Dimensions,” Aerospace Research Council, United Kingdom, R & M No. 1194.

Southwell, R. V., 1946, *Relaxation Methods in Theoretical Physics*, Oxford University Press, New York.

von Neumann, J., 1944, “Proposal for Analysis of Numerical Method for the Treatment of Hydrodynamical Shock Problems,” National Defense and Research Committee, Report No. AM-551, March.

Courant, R., IsaacsonE., and Rees, M., 1952, “On the Solution of Non-Linear Hyperbolic Differential Equations by Finite-Differences,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 5, pp. 243–255.

[CrossRef]Burggraf, O. R., 1966, “Analytical and Numerical Studies of Steady Separated Flows,” J. Fluid Mech., 24, pp. 113–151.

[CrossRef]Runchal, A. K., and Wolfshtein, M., 1966, “A Finite-Difference Procedure for the Integration of the Navier-Stokes Equations,” Imperial College, Mechanical Engineering Department, Report No. SF/TN/1.

Runchal, A. K., Spalding, D. B., and Wolfshtein, M., 1967, “The Numerical Solution of the Elliptic Equations for the Transport of Vorticity, Heat and Matter in Two Dimensional Flows,” Imperial College, Mechanical Engineering Department, Report No. SF/TN/2.

Runchal, A. K., and Wolfshtein, M., 1967, “A Fortran IV Computer Program for the Solution of Steady-State, Two-Dimensional Equations of Motion, Energy and Concentrations,” Imperial College, Mechanical Engineering Department, Report No. SF/TN/10.

Runchal, A. K., 1967, “Three Finite-Difference Methods for Navier-Stokes Equations,” Proceedings of 2nd Applied Mechanics Conference, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

Runchal, A. K., and Wolfshtein, M., 1969, “Numerical Integration Procedure for the Steady-State Navier-Stokes Equations,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 5, pp. 445–453.

[CrossRef]Runchal, A. K., Spalding, D. B., and Wolfshtein, M., 1969, “Numerical Solution of the Elliptic Equations for Transport of Vorticity, Heat, and Matter in Two-Dimensional Flow,” Phys. Fluids, 12, pp. 21–28.

[CrossRef]Harlow, F. H., and Welch, J. E., 1965, “Numerical Calculation of Time-Dependent Viscous Incompressible Flow With Free Surface,” Phys. Fluids, 8(12), pp. 2182–2189.

[CrossRef]Barakat, H. Z., and Clark, J. A., 1965, “Transient Natural Convection in Flows in Closed Containers,” University of Michigan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Heat Transfer Lab, Technical Report No. 2.

Wolfshtein, M., 1968, “Numerical Smearing in One Sided Difference Approximations to the Equations of Non Viscous Flow,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London, Report No. EF/TN/3.

Hirt, C. W., 1968, “Heuristic Stability Theory for Finite-Difference Equations,” J. Comput. Phys., 2(4), pp. 339–355.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1972, “A Novel Finite-Difference Formulation for Differential Expressions Involving Both First and Second Derivatives,” Int. J Numer. Methods Eng., 4, pp. 551–559.

[CrossRef]Leonard, B. P., 1979, “A Stable and Accurate Convective Modeling Procedure Based on Quadratic Upstream Interpolation,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 19(1), pp. 59–98.

[CrossRef]Raithby, G. D., 1976, “Skew-Upstream Differencing Schemes for Nearly-Steady Problems Involving Fluid Flow,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 9, pp. 153–164.

[CrossRef]van Leer, B., 1982, *Flux-Vector Splitting for the Euler Equations* (Lecture Notes in Physics, Vol. 170), Springer, Berlin, pp. 507–512.

Harten, A., 1983, “High Resolution Schemes for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws,” J. Comput. Phys., 49(2), pp. 357–393.

[CrossRef]Wolfshtein, M., 1968, “Turbulent Convection in Impinging Jets,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College, London University, London, UK.

Runchal, A. K., 1969, “Transport Processes in Steady Two-Dimensional Separated Flows,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, UK.

Gosman, A. D., Pun, W. M., Runchal, A. K., Spalding, D. B., and Wolfshtein, M., 1969, *Heat and Mass Transfer in Recirculating Flows*, Academic Press, London.

Edwards, A. L., 1968, “TRUMP: A Computer Program for Transient and Steady-State Temperature Distributions in Multi-Dimensional Systems,” Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Univ. of California, Livermore, CA, Report No. UCRL 14754.

Roache, P. J., 1972, *Computational Fluid Dynamics*, Hermosa Publishers, Socorro, NM.

Spalding, D. B., 1980, “Idealisations of Radiation,” Imperial College, Mechanical Engineering Department, Report No. HTS/2080/1.

Caretto, L. S., Curr, R. M., and Spalding, D. B., 1972, “Two Numerical Methods for Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 1(1), pp. 39–57.

[CrossRef]Chorin, A. J., 1967, “The Numerical Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Fluid,” Bull. Am. Math. Soc., 73(6), pp. 928–931.

[CrossRef]Patankar, S. V., and Spalding, D. B., 1972, “A Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in Three-Dimensional Parabolic Flows,” Int. J Heat Mass Transfer, 15, pp. 1787–1806.

[CrossRef]Van Doormaal, J. P., and Raithby, J. P., 1984, “Enhancements of the Simple Method for Predicting Incompressible Fluid Flows,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B, 7(2), pp. 147–163.

[CrossRef]Patankar, S. V., 1980, *Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow*, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Spalding, D. B., 1980, “Mathematical Modelling of Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer Processes,” Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London, Technical Report No. HTS-80-1.

Vanka, P., 1986, “Block-Implicit Multigrid Solution of Navier-Stokes Equations in Primitive Variables,” J. Comput. Phys., 65(1), pp. 138–158.

[CrossRef]Runchal, A. K., 1971, “A Non-Staggered Finite-Difference Procedure for 3D Primitive Variable Navier-Stokes Equations and a Concise Notation for Difference Schemes,” Mechanical Engineering Department, Imperial College, London, Technical Note: 3D-Duct Flow Group, July 15.

Rhie, C. M., and Chow, W. L., 1983, “Numerical Study of the Turbulent Flow Past an Airfoil With Trailing Edge Separation,” AIAA J., 21(11), pp. 1525–1532.

[CrossRef]Kolmogorov, A. N., 1942, “Equations of Motion of an Incompressible Turbulent Fluid,” Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Phys, 6, pp. 56–58.

Prandtl, L., 1945, “Ueber Ein Neues Formelsystem Fuer die Ausgebildete Turbulenz,” Nachr. Akad. Wiss. Goettingen. II, Math.-Phys. Klasse, 6, pp. 6–19.

Chou, P. Y., 1945, “On the Velocity Correlations and the Solution of Equations of Turbulence Fluctuations,” Q. Appl. Math., 3, pp. 38–54.

Rotta, J. C., 1951, “Statistische Theorie Nichthomogener Turbulenz,” Zeitschrift fur Physik,

**129**, pp. 547–572 and131, pp. 51–77 (Translated into English by W. Rodi as Imperial College Mechanical Engineering Department Technical Notes TWF/TN/38 and TWF/TN/39).

[CrossRef]Davidov, B. I., 1961, “On the Statistical Dynamics of an Incompressible Turbulent Fluid,” Dokl. AN SSR, 136(1), pp. 47–50.

Harlow, F. H., and Nakayama, P. I., 1968, “Transport of Turbulence Energy Decay Rate,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Report No. LA-3854.

Hanjalic, K., 1970, “Two Dimensional Asymmetrical Turbulent Flow in Ducts,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College, London University, UK.

Jones, W. P., and Launder, B. E., 1972, “The Prediction of Laminarization With a Two-Equation Model of Turbulence,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 15, pp. 301–314.

[CrossRef]Launder, B. E., and Spalding, D. B., 1972, *Mathematical Models of Turbulence*, Academic Press, New York.

Launder, B. E., and Spalding, D. B., 1974, “Computational Methods for Turbulent Flows,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 3, pp. 269–289.

[CrossRef]Saffman, P. G., 1976, “Development of a Complete Model for the Calculation of Turbulent Shear Flows,” Symposium on Turbulence and Dynamical Systems, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Wilcox, D. C., 2006, *Turbulence Modeling for CFD*, 3rd ed., DCW Industries, Inc., La Canada, California.

Spalding, D. B., 1971, “Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Confined Turbulent Flames,” 13th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 649–657.

Khalil, E. E., Spalding, D. B., and Whitelaw, J. H., 1975, “The Calculation of Local Flow Properties in Two-Dimensional Furnaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 18(6), pp. 775–791.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1976, “Mathematical-Models of Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 13(1–6), pp. 3–25.

[CrossRef]Lockwood, F. C., and Naguib, A. S., 1975, “The Prediction of the Fluctuations in the Properties of Free, Round-Jet, Turbulent, Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 24, pp. 109–124.

[CrossRef]Elghobashi, S., Spalding, D. B., and Srivatsa, S. K., 1977, “Prediction of Hydrodynamics and Chemistry of Confined Turbulent Methane-Air Mixtures With Attention to the Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen,” Report No. NASA CR-135170, CHAM TR 951/2.

Spalding, D. B., 1978, “A General Theory of Turbulent Combustion,” J. Energy, 2(1), pp. 16–23.

[CrossRef]Serag-Eldin, M. A., and Spalding, D. B., 1979, “Computations of Three-Dimensional Gas-Turbine Combustion Chamber Flows,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 101(3), pp. 326–336.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1979, “The Influences of Laminar Transport and Chemical Kinetics on the Time-Mean Reaction Rate in a Turbulent Flame,” Proceedings of the 17th Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 431–440.

Spalding, D. B., 1976, “The ESCIMO Theory of Turbulent Combustion,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London, Report No. HTS/76/13.

Kerstein, A. R., 1989, “Linear-Eddy Modeling of Turbulent Transport. II: Application to Shear Layer Mixing,” Combust. Flame, 75, pp. 397–413.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1981, “IPSA New Developments and Computed Results,” Imperial College, Report No. HTS/81/2.

Spalding, D. B., 1980, “Numerical Computation of Multi-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer,” *Recent Advances in Numerical Methods in Fluids*, C.Taylor, ed., Pineridge Press, Swansea, UK.

Spalding, D. B., 1977, “The Calculation of Free-Convection Phenomena in Gas–Liquid Mixtures,” *Heat Transfer and Turbulent Buoyant Convection*, Vol. 2, D. B.Spalding and N.Afgan, eds., Hemisphere, Washington, DC.

Spalding, D. B., 1974, “A Method for Computing Steady and Unsteady Flows Possessing Discontinuities of Density,” CHAM Ltd., Wimbledon, London, Report No. 910/2.

Spalding, D. B., and Malin, M. R., 1984, “A Two-Fluid Model of Turbulence and Its Application to Heated Plane Jets and Wakes,” PhysicoChem. Hydrodyn., 5(5–6), pp. 339–361.

Ilegbusi, O. J., and Spalding, D. B., 1989, “Prediction of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Turbulent Shear Flows With a Two-Fluid Model of Turbulence,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(4), pp. 767–774.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1986, “The Two-Fluid Model of Turbulence Applied to Combustion Phenomena,” AIAA J., 24(6), pp. 876–884.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1987, “A Turbulence Model for Buoyant and Combusting Flows,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 24(1), pp. 1–23.

[CrossRef]Spalding, D. B., 1996, “Multi-Fluid Models of Turbulent Combustion,” CTAC95 Biennial Conference, Melbourne, Australia, World Scientific Publishing Co., pp. 59–81.