Research Papers: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Jet Impingement Heat Transfer Using Air-Laden Nanoparticles With Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
L. C. Chow

e-mail: louis.chow@ucf.edu
Department of Mechanical, Materials
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

M. Su

NanoScience Technology Center,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

J. P. Kizito

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
North Carolina Agricultural and
Technological State University,
Greensboro, NC 27411

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Heat Transfer. Manuscript received October 30, 2011; final manuscript received January 21, 2013; published online April 12, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Alfonso Ortega.

J. Heat Transfer 135(5), 052202 (Apr 12, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-11-1491; doi: 10.1115/1.4023563 History: Received October 30, 2011; Revised January 21, 2013

Nanoparticles made of polymer encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) are added in air to enhance the heat transfer performance of air jet impingement flows applied to cooling processes. Encapsulation prevents agglomeration of the PCM (paraffin) nanoparticles when they are in the liquid phase. The sizes of the particles are chosen to be small enough so that they maintain near velocity equilibrium with the air stream. Small solid paraffin particles can absorb a significant amount of energy rapidly from a heat source by changing phase from solid to liquid. Nanoparticle volume fraction is found to play an important role in determining the overall pressure drop and heat transfer of the jet impingement process. Specifically, air jets laden with 2.5% particulate volume fraction were shown to improve the average heat transfer coefficient by 58 times in the air flow speed range of 4.6 to 15.2 m/s when compared to that of pure air alone. In addition, the structural integrity of the encapsulating shells was demonstrated to be excellent by the repeated use of the nanoparticles in closed loop testing.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Bandrowski, J., and Kaczmarzyk, G., 1978, “Gas-to-Particle Heat Transfer in Vertical Pneumatic Conveying of Granular Materials,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 33, pp. 1303–1310. [CrossRef]
Yamagishi, Y., Takeuchi, H., Pyatenko, T. A., and Kayukawa, N., 1999, “Characteristics of Microencapsulated PCM Slurry Mixed With Nanoparticles as a Heat Transfer Fluid,” AIChE J., 45, pp. 696–707. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y., Crowe, C. T., Chung, J. N., and Troutt, T. R., 2000, “Experiments on Particle Dispersion in a Plane Wake,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 26, pp. 1583–1607. [CrossRef]
Crowe, C. T., Chung, J. N., and Troutt, T. R., 1996, “Numerical Models for Two Phase Turbulence Flows,” Ann, Rev, Fluid Mech., 28, pp. 11–43. [CrossRef]
Hong, Y., Ding, S. J., Wu, W., Hu, J. J., Voevodin, A. A., Gschwender, L., Snyder, E., Chow, L. C., and Su, M., 2010, “Enhancing Heat Capacity of Colloidal Suspension Using Nanoscale Encapsulated Phase-Change Materials for Heat Transfer,” Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2, pp. 1685–1691. [CrossRef]
Lee, J., and Crowe, C. T., 1982, “Scaling Laws for Metering the Flow of Gas-Particle Suspensions Through Venturis,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 104(1), pp. 88–91. [CrossRef]
Wu, Z. S., and Xie, F., 2007, “Optimization of Venturi Tube Design for Pipeline Pulverized Coal Flow Measurement,” J. Tsinghua University (Sci. & Tech.), 47, pp. 666–669.
The Society of Thermophysical Properties, 1994, Thermophysical Properties, Youkendo, Tokyo.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Data Sheet, 2010, www.Matweb.com
JSME, 1986, JSME Data Book, Heat Transfer, 4th ed., Maruzen, Tokyo, Japan.
Goel, M., Roy, S. K., and Sengupta, S., 1994, “Laminar Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Microcapsulated Phase Change Material Suspensions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 37, pp. 593–604. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P., DeWitt, D. P., Bergman, T. L., and Lavine, A. S., 2007, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 5th ed., Wiley, New York.
Martin, H., 1977, “Heat and Mass Transfer Between Impinging Gas Jets and a Solid Surface,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 13, pp. 1–60. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of the synthesis process of nanoparticles using Styrene polymerization to create a shell which encapsulates the wax core

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image, (b) TEM image, and (c) particle size distribution of encapsulated wax nanoparticles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves at 1  °C/min and the samples mass are all at 20 mg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Viscosity of air particle suspension as a function of particulate loading

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the experimental flow loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of test chamber and a cut-out view of nozzle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Pressure drop as a function of flow rate when the inlet temperature is 12 °C for particle volume fraction of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5%. (b) Normalized pressure drops based on pure air.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Heat transfer coefficient compared with Martin correlation when the inlet temperature is 12 °C, (a) pure air, H = 20 mm. (b) For particle volume fraction of 1% and 2.5% without phase change, H = 20 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Jet heat transfer coefficient versus flow speed at different jet standoff distance; H = 20, 30 and 40 mm given a nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 1% and inlet temperature set at 12 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Heat transfer coefficients for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 0% (pure air), 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5% when the inlet temperature is set at 19 °C, H = 20 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Heat transfer coefficient comparison for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 1% and 2.5% when the inlet temperature is set at 12 °C (without phase change) and 19 °C (with phase change), H = 20 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Heat transfer enhancement factors for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5%. (b) Heat transfer coefficient pressure drop ratio for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5%, H = 20 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Required melting time versus the temperature difference between particle surface and melting point (TsTm) for three PCM particle sizes



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In