Research Papers: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Jet Impingement Heat Transfer Using Air-Laden Nanoparticles With Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
L. C. Chow

e-mail: louis.chow@ucf.edu
Department of Mechanical, Materials
and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

M. Su

NanoScience Technology Center,
University of Central Florida,
Orlando, FL 32816

J. P. Kizito

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
North Carolina Agricultural and
Technological State University,
Greensboro, NC 27411

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Heat Transfer. Manuscript received October 30, 2011; final manuscript received January 21, 2013; published online April 12, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Alfonso Ortega.

J. Heat Transfer 135(5), 052202 (Apr 12, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-11-1491; doi: 10.1115/1.4023563 History: Received October 30, 2011; Revised January 21, 2013

Nanoparticles made of polymer encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) are added in air to enhance the heat transfer performance of air jet impingement flows applied to cooling processes. Encapsulation prevents agglomeration of the PCM (paraffin) nanoparticles when they are in the liquid phase. The sizes of the particles are chosen to be small enough so that they maintain near velocity equilibrium with the air stream. Small solid paraffin particles can absorb a significant amount of energy rapidly from a heat source by changing phase from solid to liquid. Nanoparticle volume fraction is found to play an important role in determining the overall pressure drop and heat transfer of the jet impingement process. Specifically, air jets laden with 2.5% particulate volume fraction were shown to improve the average heat transfer coefficient by 58 times in the air flow speed range of 4.6 to 15.2 m/s when compared to that of pure air alone. In addition, the structural integrity of the encapsulating shells was demonstrated to be excellent by the repeated use of the nanoparticles in closed loop testing.

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Fig. 6

Schematic of test chamber and a cut-out view of nozzle

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the experimental flow loop

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Fig. 4

Viscosity of air particle suspension as a function of particulate loading

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Fig. 2

(a) SEM image, (b) TEM image, and (c) particle size distribution of encapsulated wax nanoparticles

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the synthesis process of nanoparticles using Styrene polymerization to create a shell which encapsulates the wax core

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Fig. 7

(a) Pressure drop as a function of flow rate when the inlet temperature is 12 °C for particle volume fraction of 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5%. (b) Normalized pressure drops based on pure air.

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Fig. 13

Required melting time versus the temperature difference between particle surface and melting point (TsTm) for three PCM particle sizes

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Fig. 8

Heat transfer coefficient compared with Martin correlation when the inlet temperature is 12 °C, (a) pure air, H = 20 mm. (b) For particle volume fraction of 1% and 2.5% without phase change, H = 20 mm.

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Fig. 3

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves at 1  °C/min and the samples mass are all at 20 mg

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Fig. 9

Jet heat transfer coefficient versus flow speed at different jet standoff distance; H = 20, 30 and 40 mm given a nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 1% and inlet temperature set at 12 °C

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Fig. 10

Heat transfer coefficients for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 0% (pure air), 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5% when the inlet temperature is set at 19 °C, H = 20 mm

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Fig. 11

Heat transfer coefficient comparison for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 1% and 2.5% when the inlet temperature is set at 12 °C (without phase change) and 19 °C (with phase change), H = 20 mm

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Fig. 12

(a) Heat transfer enhancement factors for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5%. (b) Heat transfer coefficient pressure drop ratio for nano-PCM particle volume fraction of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2.5%, H = 20 mm.




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