Research Papers

A Comparative Study of Thermal Metrology Techniques for Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes

[+] Author and Article Information
Shweta Natarajan

e-mail: shwetan@gatech.edu

Yishak Habtemichael

e-mail: yhabtemich3@gatech.edu

Samuel Graham

e-mail: sgraham@gatech.edu
Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30318

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received August 31, 2012; final manuscript received February 5, 2013; published online July 26, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Pamela M. Norris.

J. Heat Transfer 135(9), 091201 (Jul 26, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1474; doi: 10.1115/1.4024359 History: Received August 31, 2012; Revised February 05, 2013

Methods used to measure the temperature of AlxGa1−xN based ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) are based on optical or electrical phenomena that are sensitive to either local, surface, or average temperatures within the LED. A comparative study of the temperature rise of AlxGa1−xN UV LEDs measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy, infrared (IR) thermography, and the forward voltage method is presented. Experimental temperature measurements are provided for UV LEDs with micropixel and interdigitated contact geometries, as well as for a number of different packaging configurations. It was found that IR spectroscopy was sensitive to optical properties of the device layers, while forward voltage method provided higher temperatures, in general. Raman spectroscopy was used to measure specific layers within the LED, showing that growth substrate temperatures in the flip-chip LEDs agreed more closely to IR measurements while layers closer to the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) agreed more closely with Forward Voltage measurements.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Schubert, E. F., 2010, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 222–234.
Chevremont, A. C., Farnet, A. M., Sergent, M., Coulomb, B., and Boudenne, J. L., 2012, “Multivariate Optimization of Fecal Bioindicator Inactivation by Coupling UV-A and UV-C LEDs,” Desalination, 285, pp. 219–225. [CrossRef]
Würtele, M. A., Kolbe, T., Lipsz, M., Külberg, A., Weyers, M., Kneissl, M., and Jekel, M., 2011, “Application of GaN-Based Ultraviolet-C Light Emitting Diodes—UV LEDs—for Water Disinfection,” Water Res., 45, pp. 1481–1489. [CrossRef]
Reilly, D. M., Moriarty, D. T., and Maynard, J. A., 2004, “Unique Properties of Solar Blind Ultraviolet Communication Systems for Unattended Ground Sensor Networks,” Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks, Vol. 5611, E. M.Carapezza, ed., London, pp. 244–254.
Zukauskas, A., Kurilcik, N., Vitta, P., Jursenas, S., Bakiene, E., and Gaska, R., 2006, “Optimization of a UV Light-Emitting Diode Based Fluorescence-Phase Sensor,” Optically Based Biological and Chemical Detection for Defence III, Vol. 6398, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kneissl, M., Kolbe, T., Chua, C., Kueller, V., Lobo, N., Stellmach, J., Knauer, A., Rodriguez, H., Einfeldt, S., Yang, Z., Johnson, N. M., and Weyers, M., 2011, “Advances in Group III-Nitride-Based Deep UV Light-Emitting Diode Technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol., 26, p. 014036. [CrossRef]
Pernot, C., Kim, M., Fukahori, S., Inazu, T., Fujita, T., Nagasawa, Y., Hirano, A., Ippommatsu, M., Iwaya, M., Kamiyama, S., Akasaki, I., and Amano, H., 2010, “Improved Efficiency of 255-280 nm AlGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express, 3, p. 061004. [CrossRef]
Khan, A., Balakrishnan, K., and Katona, T., 2008, “Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Group Three Nitrides,” Nat. Photonics, 2, pp. 77–84. [CrossRef]
Khan, M. A., 2006, “AlGaN Multiple Quantum Well Based Deep UV LEDs and Their Applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A, 203, pp. 1764–1770. [CrossRef]
Xi, Y., Xi, J. Q., Gessmann, T., Shah, J. M., Kim, J. K., Schubert, E. F., Fischer, A. J., Crawford, M. H., Bogart, K. H. A., and Allerman, A. A., 2005, “Junction and Carrier Temperature Measurements in Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Using Three Different Methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 86, p. 031907. [CrossRef]
Kendig, D., Yazawa, K., and Shakouri, A., 2011, “Thermal Imaging of Encapsulated LEDs,” 27th Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, pp. 310–313.
Natarajan, S., Watkins, B. G., Adivarahan, V., Khan, A., and Graham, S., 2012, “Thermal Characterization of Discrete Device Layers in AlxGa1xN Based Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” 3rd ASME Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Adivarahan, V., Fareed, Q., Srivastava, S., Katona, T., Gaevski, M., and Khan, A., 2007, “Robust 285 nm Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes Over Metal Organic Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxially Grown AlN/Sapphire Templates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2, 46, pp. L537–L539. [CrossRef]
Adivarahan, V., Heidari, A., Zhang, B., Fareed, Q., Hwang, S., Islam, M., and Khan, A., 2009, “280 nm Deep Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Lamp With an AlGaN Multiple Quantum Well Active Region,” Appl. Phys. Express, 2, p. 102101. [CrossRef]
Hwang, S., Islam, M., Zhang, B., Lachab, M., Dion, J., Heidari, A., Nazir, H., Adivarahan, V., and Khan, A., 2011, “A Hybrid Micro-Pixel Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode Lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express, 4, p. 012102. [CrossRef]
Grandusky, J. R., Gibb, S. R., Mendrick, M. C., and Schowalter, L. J., 2010, “Properties of Mid-Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes Fabricated From Pseudomorphic Layers on Bulk Aluminum Nitride Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express, 3, p. 072103. [CrossRef]
Grandusky, J., Cui, Y., Gibb, S., Mendrick, M., and Schowalter, L., 2010, “Performance and Reliability of Ultraviolet-C Pseudomorphic Light Emitting Diodes on Bulk AlN Substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C, 7, pp. 2199–2201. [CrossRef]
Grandusky, J. R., Gibb, S. R., Mendrick, M. C., Moe, C., Wraback, M., and Schowalter, L. J., 2011, “High Output Power From 260 nm Pseudomorphic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Improved Thermal Performance,” Appl. Phys. Express, 4, p. 082101. [CrossRef]
Beechem, T. E., and Serrano, J. R., 2011, “Raman Thermometry of Microdevices: Choosing a Method to Minimize Error,” Spectroscopy, 26, pp. 36–44. Available at http://www.spectroscopyonline.com/spectroscopy/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=749075&sk=&date=&pageID=5
Beechem, T., Christensen, A., Graham, S., and Green, D., 2008, “Micro-Raman Thermometry in the Presence of Complex Stresses in GaN Devices,” J. Appl. Phys., 103, p. 124501. [CrossRef]
Parayanthal, P., and Pollak, F. H., 1984, “Raman Scattering in Alloy Semiconductors—Spatial Correlation Model,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 52, pp. 1822–1825. [CrossRef]
Xi, Y., Gessmann, T., Xi, J., Kim, J. K., Shah, J. M., Schubert, E. F., Fischer, A. J., Crawford, M. H., Bogart, K. H. A., and Allerman, A. A., 2005, “Junction Temperature in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 44, pp. 7260–7266. [CrossRef]
Xi, Y., and Schubert, E. F., 2004, “Junction–Temperature Measurement in GaN Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes Using Diode Forward Voltage Method,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 85, pp. 2163–2165. [CrossRef]
Meneghini, M., Tazzoli, A., Mura, G., Meneghesso, G., and Zanoni, E., 2010, “A Review on the Physical Mechanisms That Limit the Reliability of GaN-Based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, 57, pp. 108–118. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional schematic of a micropixel device, showing the multilayered composite device structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Micrograph showing the electrode architecture of the micropixel device, pointing to the p-contact and n-electrode regions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Micropixel devices investigated showing (a) the deep UV lamp consisting of a device atop an CTS submount and a TO3 header, (b) device 1 consisting of a device atop an AlNsubmount and a TO66 header, and (c) device 2 consisting of a device atop an CTS submount and a TO66 header

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional schematic of an interdigitated device, showing the multilayered composite device structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Micrograph showing the interdigitated electrode geometry of the interdigitated device, depicting the p-mesa and the n-electrode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The lead-frame package of the interdigitated device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The three locations of micro-Raman measurements in the micropixel device shown in relation to the various layers in the device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Locations of micro-Raman measurements in the interdigitated shown in relation to the various layers in the device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

IR thermograph of the interdigitated device, showing the region of highest temperature in the device to be at the edge of p-mesa which was also the location of micro-Raman measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Raman spectrum between 514 cm−1 and 775 cm−1 of an unpowered micropixel device at 25 °C, showing the Raman peaks of interest

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Raman spectrum between 566 cm−1 and 672 cm−1 of the unpowered interdigitated device at 40 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The temperature rises with increasing input powers in the sapphire layer (location III), the AlN layer (location II), and the n-AlxGa1−xN layer (location I) over the MQW, in the DUVL, measured using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The temperature rise presented for location I has been corrected for the effects of inverse-piezoelectric stress.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Temperature rises in the AlN layer and the sapphire layer, measured by micro-Raman thermography, and the temperature rise measured by IR thermography, with increasing input powers, for device 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Temperature rises in the AlN and sapphire layers, measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy, and temperature rise measured by IR thermography, with increasing input powers, for device 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Temperature rises for various input powers, for the interdigitated device, in the p-GaN and AlN layers measured through micro-Raman spectroscopy, and from IR spectroscopy and the forward voltage method



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In