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Research Papers

Enhanced Pool Boiling With Ethanol at Subatmospheric Pressures for Electronics Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Ankit Kalani

e-mail: axk2161@rit.edu

Satish G. Kandlikar

e-mail: sgkeme@rit.edu
ASME Fellow Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: 76 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, 14623.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Heat Transfer. Manuscript received March 30, 2012; final manuscript received November 17, 2012; published online September 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Sujoy Kumar Saha.

J. Heat Transfer 135(11), 111002 (Sep 23, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1142; doi: 10.1115/1.4024595 History: Received March 30, 2012; Revised November 17, 2012

The growing trend in miniaturization of electronics has generated a need for efficient thermal management of these devices. Boiling has the ability to dissipate a high heat flux while maintaining a small temperature difference. A vapor chamber with pool boiling offers an effective way to provide cooling and to maintain temperature uniformity. The objective of the current work is to investigate pool boiling performance of ethanol on enhanced microchannel surfaces. Ethanol is an attractive working fluid due to its better heat transfer performance and higher heat of vaporization compared to refrigerants, and lower normal boiling point compared to water. The saturation temperature of ethanol can be further reduced to temperatures suitable for electronics cooling by lowering the pressure. Experiments were performed at four different absolute pressures, 101.3 kPa, 66.7 kPa, 33.3 kPa, and 16.7 kPa using different microchannel surface configurations. Heat dissipation in excess of 900 kW/m2 was obtained while maintaining the wall surface below 85 °C at 33 kPa. Flammability, toxicity, and temperature overshoot issues need to be addressed before practical implementation of ethanol-based cooling systems can occur.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the pool boiling test setup

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the heater assembly

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Fig. 3

Copper test section with microchannels

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Fig. 4

Boiling curves for a plain chip with ethanol and FC-87 at atmospheric pressure

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Fig. 5

Boiling curves of plain chip for ethanol for pressures of 101.3 kPa, 66.7 kPa, 33.3 kPa, and 16.7 kPa

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Fig. 6

Boiling curves of microchannel enhanced surfaces chip for ethanol at different pressures: (a) chip 1, (b) chip 2, (c) chip 3, and (d) chip 4

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Fig. 7

Heat transfer coefficients for the tested chips at atmospheric pressure

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Fig. 8

Heat transfer coefficients for chips 1 and 3 at 101.3 kPa and 66.7 kPa

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Fig. 9

Boiling curve after ONB for chip 1 for pressures of 101.3 kPa, 66.7 kPa, 33.3 kPa, and 16.7 kPa plotted with heat flux as a function of chip surface temperature

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