Research Papers

Operational Limitations of Heat Pipes With Silver-Water Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Lazarus Godson Asirvatham

e-mail: godson@karunya.edu; godasir@yahoo.co.in

Rajesh Nimmagadda

e-mail: rajesh.mech335@gmail.com

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Karunya University,
Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu, India

Somchai Wongwises

Fluid Mechanics,
Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
King Mongkut's University of Technology,
Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Tongkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand;
The Academy of Science,
The Royal Institute of Thailand,
Sanam Suea Pa, Dusit,
Bangkok 10300, Thailand
e-mail: somchai.won@kmutt.ac.th

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Heat Transfer. Manuscript received May 28, 2012; final manuscript received March 9, 2013; published online September 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Sujoy Kumar Saha.

J. Heat Transfer 135(11), 111011 (Sep 23, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1253; doi: 10.1115/1.4024616 History: Received May 28, 2012; Revised March 09, 2013

The paper presents the enhancement in the operational limits (boiling, entrainment, sonic, viscous and capillary limits) of heat pipes using silver nanoparticles dispersed in de-ionized (DI) water. The tested nanoparticles concentration ranged from 0.003 vol. % to 0.009 vol. % with particle diameter of <100 nm. The nanofluid as working fluid enhances the effective thermal conductivity of heat pipe by 40%, 58%, and 70%, respectively, for volume concentrations of 0.003%, 0.006%, and 0.009%. For an input heat load of 60 W, the adiabatic vapor temperatures of nanofluid based heat pipes are reduced by 9 °C, 18 °C, and 20 °C, when compared with DI water. This reduction in the operating temperature enhances the thermophysical properties of working fluid and gives a change in the various operational limits of heat pipes. The use of silver nanoparticles with 0.009 vol. % concentration increases the capillary limit value of heat pipe by 54% when compared with DI water. This in turn improves the performance and operating range of the heat pipe.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Choi, S. U. S., and Eastman, J. A., 1995, “Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids With Nanoparticles,” Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibition, San Francisco, CA, pp. 99–105.
Shafai, M., Bianco, V., Vafai, K., and Manca, O., 2010, “An Investigation of the Thermal Performance of Cylindrical Heat Pipes Using Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53, pp. 376–383. [CrossRef]
Liu, Z. H., Li, Y., and Bao, R., 2011, “Compositive Effect of Nanoparticle Parameter on Thermal Performance of Cylindrical Micro-Grooved Heat Pipe Using Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50, pp. 558–568. [CrossRef]
Nemec, P., Caja, A., and Malcho, M., 2011, “Mathematical Model for Heat Transfer Limitations of Heat Pipe,” Math. Comput. Modell., 57, pp. 126–136. [CrossRef]
Nemec, P., and Huzvar, J., 2007, “Mathematical Calculation of Total Heat Power of the Sodium Heat Pipe,” Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Science, Article for Solution to Project APVV-0517-07.
Naik, R., Varadarajan, V., and Pundarika, G., 2011, “Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Axially Grooved Wick Assisted Heat Pipe,” Int. J. Emerg. Trends Eng. Dev., 2(1), pp. 25–39.
Faghri, A., 1995, Heat Pipe Science and Technology, Taylor and Francis Publication, Washington, DC.
Peterson, G. P., 1994, An Introduction to Heat Pipes, Modeling, Testing and Applications, Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Thuchayapong, N., Nakanob, A., Sakulchangsatjataia, P., and Terdtoona, P., 2012, “Effect of Capillary Pressure on Performance of a Heat Pipe: Numerical Approach With FEM,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 32, pp. 93–99. [CrossRef]
Riehl, R. R., and Santos, N. D., 2012, “Water-Copper Nanofluid Application in an Open Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 42, pp. 6–10. [CrossRef]
Chiang, Y. C., Chieh, J.-J., and Ho, C. C., 2012, “The Magnetic-Nanofluid Heat Pipe With Superior Thermal Properties Through Magnetic Enhancement,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 7, pp. 322–328. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Liu, Z. H., and Li, Y. Y., 2012, “A New Frontier of Nanofluid Research—Application of Nanofluids in Heat Pipes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55, pp. 6786–6797. [CrossRef]
Putra, N., Septiadi, W. N., Rahman, H., and Irwansyah, R., 2012, “Thermal Performance of Screen Mesh Wick Heat Pipes With Nanofluids,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 40, pp. 10–17. [CrossRef]
Hajian, R., Layeghi, M., and Abbaspour Sani, K., 2012, “Experimental Study of Nanofluid Effects on the Thermal Performance With Response Time of Heat Pipe,” Energy Convers. Manage., 56, pp. 63–68. [CrossRef]
Alizad, K., Vafai, K., and Shafahi, M., 2012, “Thermal Performance and Operational Attributes of the Startup Characteristics of Flat-Shaped Heat Pipes Using Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(1–3), pp. 140–155. [CrossRef]
Tsai, T. H., Chien, H. T., and Chen, P. H., 2011, “Improvement on Thermal Performance of a Disk-Shaped Miniature Heat Pipe With Nanofluid,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6, pp. 590–596. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Putra, N., Yanuar, Iskandar, F. N., 2011, “Application of Nanofluids to a Heat Pipe Liquid-Block and the Thermoelectric Cooling of Electronic Equipment,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(7), pp. 1274–1281. [CrossRef]
Jamshidi, H., Arabnejad, S., Shafii, M. B., Saboohi, Y., 2011, “Thermal Characteristics of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe With Nanofluids,” J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 18(3), pp. 221–237. [CrossRef]
Ji, Y., Ma, H., Su, F., and Wang, G., 2011, “Particle Size Effect on Heat Transfer Performance in an Oscillating Heat Pipe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(4), pp. 724–727. [CrossRef]
Li, Q. M., Zou, J., Yang, Z., Duan, Y.-Y., and Wang, B.-X., 2011, “Visualization of Two-Phase Flows in Nanofluid Oscillating Heat Pipes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133(5), p. 052901. [CrossRef]
Huminic, G., Huminic, A., Morjan, I., and Dumitrache, F., 2011, “Experimental Study of the Thermal Performance of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(1–3), pp. 656–661. [CrossRef]
Liu, Z., and Zhu, Q., 2011, “Application of Aqueous Nanofluids in a Horizontal Mesh Heat Pipe,” Energy Convers. Manage., 52(1), pp. 292–300. [CrossRef]
Wang, G. S., Song, B., and Liu, Z. H., 2012, “Operation Characteristics of Cylindrical Miniature Grooved Heat Pipe Using Aqueous CuO Nanofluids,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 34(8), pp. 1415–1421. [CrossRef]
Li, Y., Lv, L., and Liu, Z., 2010, “Influence of Nanofluids on the Operation Characteristics of Small Capillary Pumped Loop,” Energy Convers. Manage., 51(11), pp. 2312–2320. [CrossRef]
Liu, Z. H., Li, Y. Y., and Bao, R., 2010, “Thermal Performance of Inclined Grooved Heat Pipes Using Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(9), pp. 1680–1687. [CrossRef]
Shafahi, M., Bianco, V., Vafai, K., and Manca, O., 2010, “Thermal Performance of Flat-Shaped Heat Pipes Using Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(7–8), pp. 1438–1445. [CrossRef]
Qu, J., Wu, H. Y., and Cheng, P., 2010, “Thermal Performance of an Oscillating Heat Pipe With Al2O3-Water Nanofluids,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(2), pp. 111–115. [CrossRef]
Kang, S. W., Wei, W. C., Tsai, S. H., and Huang, C. C., 2009, “Experimental Investigation of Nanofluids on Sintered Heat Pipe Thermal Performance,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29(5–6), pp. 973–979. [CrossRef]
Yang, X. F., Liu, Z. H., and Zhao, J., 2008, “Heat Transfer Performance of a Horizontal Micro-Grooved Heat Pipe Using CuO Nanofluid,” J. Micromech. Microeng.18(3), p. 035038. [CrossRef]
Liu, Z. H., Xiong, J. G., and Bao, R., 2007, “Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids in a Flat Heat Pipe Evaporator With Micro-Grooved Heating Surface,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 33(12), pp. 1284–1295. [CrossRef]
Ma, H. B., Wilson, C., Borgmeyer, B., Park, K., Yu, Q., Choi, S. U. S., and Tirumala, M., 2006, “Effect of Nanofluid on the Heat Transport Capability in an Oscillating Heat Pipe,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 88(14), p. 143116. [CrossRef]
Tsai, C. Y., Chien, H. T., Ding, P. P., Chan, B., Luh, T. Y., and Chen, P. H., 2004, “Effect of Structural Character of Gold Nanoparticles in Nanofluid on Heat Pipe Thermal Performance,” Mater. Lett., 58(9), pp. 1461–1465. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, I. Y., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Sub-Micron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y., and Roetzel, W., 2000, “Conceptions for Heat Transfer Correlation of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 3701–3707. [CrossRef]
Godson, L., Raja, B., Lal, M. D., Wongwises, S., 2010, “Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Silver-Deionized Water Nanofluid,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 23(4), pp. 317–332. [CrossRef]
Bejan, A., and Kraus, A. D., 2003, Heat Transfer Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
Ahmad, H., and Rajab, H., 2010, “An Experimental Study of Parameters Affecting a Heat Pipe Performance,” Al-Rafidain Eng. J., 18(3), pp. 97–116.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Stability test for 0.009 vol. % silver/water nanofluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of 0.009% volume concentration of silver nanoparticles and (b) particle distribution percentage against size of silver nanoparticles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Capillary limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Boiling limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Entrainment limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Sonic limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The logarithmic plot of viscous limits with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Operating limits of nanofluid based heat pipes against adiabatic vapor temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Operating limits of DI water-based heat pipe against adiabatic vapor temperature




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In