Research Papers

Operational Limitations of Heat Pipes With Silver-Water Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Lazarus Godson Asirvatham

e-mail: godson@karunya.edu; godasir@yahoo.co.in

Rajesh Nimmagadda

e-mail: rajesh.mech335@gmail.com

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Karunya University,
Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu, India

Somchai Wongwises

Fluid Mechanics,
Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
King Mongkut's University of Technology,
Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Tongkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand;
The Academy of Science,
The Royal Institute of Thailand,
Sanam Suea Pa, Dusit,
Bangkok 10300, Thailand
e-mail: somchai.won@kmutt.ac.th

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Heat Transfer. Manuscript received May 28, 2012; final manuscript received March 9, 2013; published online September 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Sujoy Kumar Saha.

J. Heat Transfer 135(11), 111011 (Sep 23, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1253; doi: 10.1115/1.4024616 History: Received May 28, 2012; Revised March 09, 2013

The paper presents the enhancement in the operational limits (boiling, entrainment, sonic, viscous and capillary limits) of heat pipes using silver nanoparticles dispersed in de-ionized (DI) water. The tested nanoparticles concentration ranged from 0.003 vol. % to 0.009 vol. % with particle diameter of <100 nm. The nanofluid as working fluid enhances the effective thermal conductivity of heat pipe by 40%, 58%, and 70%, respectively, for volume concentrations of 0.003%, 0.006%, and 0.009%. For an input heat load of 60 W, the adiabatic vapor temperatures of nanofluid based heat pipes are reduced by 9 °C, 18 °C, and 20 °C, when compared with DI water. This reduction in the operating temperature enhances the thermophysical properties of working fluid and gives a change in the various operational limits of heat pipes. The use of silver nanoparticles with 0.009 vol. % concentration increases the capillary limit value of heat pipe by 54% when compared with DI water. This in turn improves the performance and operating range of the heat pipe.

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Fig. 1

Stability test for 0.009 vol. % silver/water nanofluid

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Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of 0.009% volume concentration of silver nanoparticles and (b) particle distribution percentage against size of silver nanoparticles

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

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Fig. 7

Sonic limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

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Fig. 8

The logarithmic plot of viscous limits with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

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Fig. 10

Operating limits of DI water-based heat pipe against adiabatic vapor temperature

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Fig. 4

Capillary limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

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Fig. 5

Boiling limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

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Fig. 6

Entrainment limit with respect to adiabatic vapor temperature

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Fig. 9

Operating limits of nanofluid based heat pipes against adiabatic vapor temperature



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