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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

An Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on Single Crystal Surfaces and a Dense Array of Cylindrical Cavities

[+] Author and Article Information
Bradley Bon

e-mail: bbonmeng@gmail.com

James Klausner

e-mail: klaus@ufl.edu
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

Edward McKenna

Materials Science and Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: eddie.mckenna@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 25, 2012; final manuscript received May 2, 2013; published online September 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Bruce L. Drolen.

J. Heat Transfer 135(12), 121501 (Sep 27, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1308; doi: 10.1115/1.4024652 History: Received June 25, 2012; Revised May 02, 2013

The pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of smooth single crystal and densely packed cylindrical cavity surfaces were investigated using two highly wetting fluids, perfluoro-n-hexane (FC-72) and n-hexane. Three single crystal copper surfaces and five undoped single crystal silicon surfaces with different plane orientations were considered. In addition, silicon surfaces with densely packed cylindrical cavities with diameters ranging from 9 to 75 μm, depth ranging from 9 to 20 μm, and spacing ranging from 75 to 600 μm were tested for comparison. It is observed that the copper single crystal surfaces show increasing heat transfer coefficient with decreasing atomic planar density. The single crystal silicon surfaces show increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing atomic planar density. Plausible molecular scale mechanisms are discussed. In contrast, the silicon surfaces seeded with cylindrical cavities having diameters of 27 μm or less generally yield higher heat transfer coefficients than the single crystal silicon surfaces. A decrease in the cavity spacing results in a larger number of cavities on the surface, and the heat transfer coefficient increases as a result. Cavity depths of 6 and 20 μm result in the same heat transfer coefficient irrespective of cavity diameter. The nucleation site density for the cylindrical cavity surfaces is measured and reported at low superheat using a novel imaging technique.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Pool boiling chamber ((1) substrate heater assembly, (2) stainless steel plate, (3) viton o-ring, (4) primary bulk fluid heater, (5) pyrex glass cylinder, (6) fill inlet, (7) inlet and outlet ports for condenser and secondary bulk fluid heater, (8) outlet to pressure transducer, (9) condenser coil, (10) secondary bulk fluid heater, (11) bulk fluid thermocouple, not shown are the outlet to the pressure relief valve and lower drain valve outlet)

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Fig. 2

Process for fabricating cylindrical cavities in silicon

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Fig. 3

Boiling curves for pool boiling heat transfer of FC-72 on five different single crystal silicon surfaces

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Fig. 4

Boiling curves for pool boiling heat transfer of hexane on five different single crystal silicon surfaces

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Fig. 5

Boiling curves for pool boiling heat transfer FC-72 on three different single crystal copper surfaces

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Fig. 6

Boiling curves for pool boiling heat transfer of hexane on three different single crystal copper surfaces

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Fig. 7

Different regions of the liquid microlayer beneath a growing vapor bubble

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Fig. 8

FC-72 pool boiling heat transfer dependence on cavity diameter (cavity depth = 20 μm, cavity spacing = 300 μm)

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Fig. 9

Pool boiling nucleation sites on the 9 μm diameter cylindrical cavities with 300 μm spacing at q″ = 0.96 W/cm2 ((a) 20 μm cavity depth and (b) 6 μm cavity depth)

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Fig. 10

FC-72 pool boiling curves for 27 μm diameter, 20 μm depth cavities with variable cavity spacing

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Fig. 11

FC-72 pool boiling curves for 75 μm diameter, 20 μm depth cavities with different cavity spacing

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Fig. 12

FC-72 pool boiling curves for 9 μm diameter, 20 μm depth cavities with different cavity spacing

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Fig. 13

Hexane pool boiling curves with 9 μm diameter, 20 μm depth cavities with different cavity spacing

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