Research Papers: Forced Convection

Experimental Investigation of Heat Fluxes in the Vicinity of Protuberances on a Flat Plate at Hypersonic Speeds

[+] Author and Article Information
C. S. Kumar

Research Scholar
e-mail: chintoo@aero.iisc.ernet.in

K. P. J. Reddy

e-mail: laser@aero.iisc.ernet.in
Laboratory for Hypersonic and
Shock Wave Research,
Department of Aerospace Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 12, 2012; final manuscript received May 16, 2013; published online September 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Phillip M. Ligrani.

J. Heat Transfer 135(12), 121701 (Sep 27, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1499; doi: 10.1115/1.4024667 History: Received September 12, 2012; Revised May 16, 2013

Heat transfer rates measured in front and to the side of a protrusion on an aluminum flat plate subjected to hypersonic flow at zero angle of attack are presented for two flow enthalpies of approximately 2 MJ/kg and 4.5 MJ/kg. Experiments were conducted in the hypersonic shock tunnel (HST2) and free piston driven HST3 at a freestream Mach number of 8. Heat transfer data was obtained for different geometries of the protrusion of a height of 4 mm, which is approximately the local boundary layer thickness. Comparatively high rates of heat transfer were obtained at regions of flow circulation in the separated region, with the hottest spot generally appearing in front of the protuberance. Experimental values showed moderate agreement with existing empirical correlations at higher enthalpy but not at all for the lower enthalpy condition, although the correlations were coined at enthalpy values nearer to the lower value. Schlieren visualization was also done to investigate the flow structures qualitatively.

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Fig. 1

Hypersonic shock tunnel 2

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Fig. 2

Hypersonic shock tunnel 3

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Fig. 3

Experimental model (a) flat plate model fitted with 60 deg protrusion and heat transfer sensors (b) heat flux gauge numbers

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Fig. 4

Sample pitot signal for HST2

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Fig. 5

Recirculation zone in front of protrusion (a symmetric half of the model is shown)

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Fig. 6

Schlieren view for a HST2 shot

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Fig. 7

Raw voltage signal and corresponding processed heat flux (a) voltage signal (b) heat transfer rate

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Fig. 8

Heat fluxes as measured by all heat transfer gauges in W/cm2 in HST2 (a) H = 1.93 MJ/kg, α = 60 deg (b) H = 1.93 MJ/kg, α = 90 deg (c) H = 1.93 MJ/kg, α = 120 deg

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Fig. 9

Heat fluxes as measured by all heat transfer gauges in W/cm2 in HST3 (a) H = 4.4 MJ/kg, α = 60 deg (b) H = 4.4 MJ/kg, α = 90 deg (c) H = 4.4 MJ/kg, α = 120 deg

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Fig. 10

Comparison of Stanton number in separated region (a) H = 1.93 MJ/kg, α = 90 deg (b) H = 4.4 MJ/kg, α = 90 deg (c) H = 1.93 MJ/kg, α = 60 deg (d) H = 4.4 MJ/kg, α = 60 deg (e) H = 1.93 MJ/kg, α = 120 deg (f) H = 4.4 MJ/kg, α = 120 deg




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